Rough Scan






COMMENTARY
The marginal numbers refer 1O lines


THE MORALL FABILLIS

Prolog

3.=ftoli/e: not 'polite' in the modern sense, but 'poleit,' or 'polished'-a stereotyped use of the epithet as applied to the 'termis' of the Scot~ rhÚloriquers.
caus: seems to be dissyllabic in value here, and in all other texts.
8.=bus/bus: an epithet of very wide application ; in the text of Henryson alone, it is used to denote: healthy, strong, sturdy, rough, fresh, brave, fierce, overbearing, etc. Derivation uncertain.
1O.=abreird: = on lireird, from breird, the first shoots. Cp. A.-S. brord, frumenti sp1c~, and Lancashire dialect, bruart, for newsprung blades of corn. The word still survives in lowland Scot s: only last summer I was counselled by an old lady of my acquaintance to 'ham at the breird.'
12.=sentence: (accented on the second syllable), sen/en/ia or 'moral.'
13.=dyle: the written word. Cp. Mod. Eng]ish 'indictment, ditty, dictate.'
22.=B gives the best reading for this line.
28.=This quotation has been used as a clue in the attempt to discover Henryson's original for the fables, and seems to point to Gualterus Anglicus' version of Romulus, which begins- 'UIjuvcI, ul j5rosi~ conaturftagina j5rÇ~esens.
Dulczus arrident serzafticta jocis.'

The quotation appears on the title-page of the Charteris text (i~o).
31.=In Mother toun~ofLatyng: 'into the vernacular, from Latin the necessary medieval convention of apology for use of the 'Mother toung.' Cp. line 36.
34.=Henryson's 'Lord,' if he ever existed, has not been identified.
35.=Gregory Smith gave the reading 'decord,' as from the Charteris print, and emended it to 'record,' but, on examining photographs of the Charter~s print, I found no trace of the reading 'dccord.' It reads 'record,' as in I/and Bass.





Quhair that they sat,ful/ easily and soft.44.=brutal: cp. this purely generic use of the epithet with that in
1.=14OO, when the sense is 'irrational.'
5Sn.facoundj5urj5urat C: 'facound' is here a substantive = 'eloquence.'
6o.=Lakthedisdane: 'make light of. .

The Tatli of the Cok, and the Jasp
69.=Jast. (A.F. ja~~te, L. iasftis) used here in the general sense of 'jewel.'
83.=The reading 'on mold' suggests the familiar verse-tag, meaning 'on the earth.' The alternative reading 'and mold' is apparently an attempt to provide 'muke' with a synonym.
1O2.=lukand werkis: Cp.
'3it have I hard oft said be men na clerkis,
Till idill folk full lycht beyn lukand warkis.'
(Douglas.)

126.=Aforalitas: Gregory Smith follows B in beginning the Moralitas at 1. 12O. All the other texts agree in beginning it at 1. 127, and there, properly speaking, the Moralitas does begin.
139.=screit: this form is unknown, and I have seen no satisfactory explanation of it. The reading 'ket,' in B, is little better:
'fret' in HCS makes excellent sense, and is probably the original reading.
149.=ignorants, the reading of all the texts except C, is certainly the better reading.

The Taill of the Uponlandis Mous, and the
Burges Mous
164.=Porous bun: a town with borough rights. This word is still preserved in the full form of the place-name Bo'ness, on the I~'irth of Forth-Borrow stounness.
165.=u,tonland: compare Fables, 1. 1268, p. 46. See Glossary.
168.=wait/i: (O.N. ve'Pr) hunting; 'wacht' in B is probably an arbitrary rhyme.form of the same word.
173.=but custom mair or les: free of custom, both the great (magna custuma, levied on exports and imports) and the little (j5arva ~us1uma, levied on market goods).
176.=unfube sair: Gregory Smith quotes several lines from the 7/erie Priestes of Peblis to explain this phrase:

Thrie Priests went unto collatioun,
Into ane privie place of the said toun,
Quhair that they sat, richt soft and unf u/c sair;
And Diebler quotes a thirteenth century version of the fable
==(Reliquice Antiqua', I, 32O), in which the mouse is described:
=='. . . Movit igitur iter facili pede.'
=179.=under I/ic wand. not 'in a state of subjection,' as is suggested
==by Laing, but 'in the open.' See Glossary.
=183.=wi/sum wayis: one of the most common M. Sc. verse-tags.
== Cp. Ort/ieus and Eumydice (p. 138, 1. 29O).
=187.=Cry j5e~~ an/s. Cp. King/s Quair, st. 57:

'Now suete bird, say ones to me pepe.'
=m98.=misterlyk, A; maisterlig, B.=G. G. S., probably on the
strength of the B forni, translates 'masterfully.' The woid actually is 'skilfully' (Scots, it/is/er, myster, craft, art). But probably the reading of C, H and Bass should be preferred. (Cp. Burns, To a ./i1ouse, 1 2O, 'Its silly wa's . .
2O3.=For comonly sic j5ykerzs luffis not lyc/et: Fergusson (Scot/is/i Proverbs, S.T.S. 1924), A. 31O. Cp. Owl and 1/ic Nightingale,
229-3O:
'Vor eurich ping pat schuniet ri3t
hit luuej> puster & hatiet 113 t.'

and John, iii. 2O.

2O7.=1 do it on 1/lame besyde.. 'I leave it to tlieni.' A common rhetorical turn.
24S. My gude friday is be//er nor your 'ace: 'My Good Friday (which is a most rigid fast) is more plentiful than your Easter (which is a time of feast).
253.=in stubbill array: B gives the best reading here-' In skugry ay' (always stealthily). The reading 'stowthry,' in A, is connected with the sense of stolen or smuggled goods (s/out/eerie, stou/hrie/, etc.). Cp. 1. 686.
263.=ane innes (A) used in plural in sing. sense. G. G. S. quotes the Wallace, iv. 3S1 (S.T.S. p. 6o)

'For him be gert ane innys graithit be.'

281.=ane subckarge: an additional course.
283.=Thraf cakkis: (O.E. pearf, unleavened) cakes of unleavened bread. See ME.!)., s.v. 'Tharf.'
285.=And mane fulifyne. This reading is supplied from C-Bass, If~ S, and lit being defective. b's reading, 'furmage,' cheese (A.F. fourmage), is good enough sense but makes the line hypermetrical. 'Mane'is fine bread, and the word is usually used with 'bread' in a descriptive sense.
288.=This, for 'thus.' A common M. Sc. usage.






3OO.=will of ane guile reid: at a loss for good counsel. 'Will of rede' and 'will of wane' are quite common. Cp. Testament of Cresseid, 1. 543, and the word 'wilsum,' 1. 183 suj5ra.
326.=Gib hun/er: Gib, or Gilbert, one of the 'character' names of the cat. His Reynardian name is Tybert.
329.=Bawdronis: another familiar name for the cat, which persisted late in Scots 'isage. Cp. R. Fergusson, The King~s Birth-Day in Edinburgh, 1. 81:

'If baudrins slip but to the door.'

336.=ane burde: B reads 'je dressour' (the dresser), and A 'je dosour' (a hanging). The latter reading is supported by 1. 348, 'I thank yone couttyne . . .', and perhaps refers to the protection curtain drawn over the upper shelves of the larder.
345.=Thyguseisšude: For this proverbial expression, see Fergusson,
A.='45.
~'anseIl: (O.F. ganse aillie) garlic sauce, served with goose.
L.=F. Salzmann, in More Medieval Byways, p. 136, cites (from the Wardrobe Account, 13O6/7) the name Gaunsazilie, as that of a minstrel who received payment at the court of Edward I. in that year, but is unaware of the significance of the word.
347.=j5er~all wall: partition wall, a wall built with parpens-single bricks or stones, faced on both sides. See N.E.D., S.D. 'Parpen.' Cp. 1. 337, 'parraling.'
36O.=bul and ben: (O.E. befi/an, beinnatz, without, within) the outer and inner room of the Scots single-doored, two-roomed dwelling-house. Direct entry is possible only to the kitchen, or 'but,' and the parlour, or 'ben,' is entered from the kitchen.
391.=And Solomon sayis: The passage does not occur, with the authority of Solomon, in the Scriptures. I quote from G. G. S.'s note: 'It suggests a memoty-blend of Ecc. iii. 22 (" Et deprehendi nihil esse melius quam l~tari hominem in opere in suo, et hance esse partem illius") and Prov. xvi. 8 (" Melius est parum cum iustitia quarn multi fructus cum iniquitate ") ; but it is most probably, in the light of Henryson's use of Lydgate, a rendering of Prov. xvii. I.'
Lydgate's version runs ~I

'Salamon writeth, how it is better behalf
A smal morsel of brede with joy and rejoysyng, Than at festis to have a rosted calf
With hevy chiere and froward grucchyng.'
The reference to Solomon seems, then, to be misplaced in Henryson's fable, and should, properly speaking, accompany 11. 234-238. Fergusson, A. 164, quotes:
'Beler is hyte to have in ese
Than much to have(n) in malese.'
See, too, King Alexander, 1. 7365.


The Paul of Schir Ohantecleir and the Foxe

=That the central theme of this fable had passed into proverbial use is indicated by the phrase in the Kingis Quair, 1. io88:

'The wyly fox, the wedowis inemye.'

4OO.=inclinatioun: sing. in form, but plural sense.
4O2.=fenyeit: a better readrng than the semis' of C.
=4! i.=droj5: metathetical form of' dorp' ('thorp')= village. Probably
==from the O.E. metathesised fonn 'jrop,' as in Thrupp (Berks),
==Throope (Wilts), Souldrop (Beds.); but, although the change
== of initial ~r to dr is common enough in W.-Mid and S.W.
== of England, the editor knows of no Scots instance.
=416.=curageous: sprightly.
=428.=Weriefornicht: weary of the night.
=429.=Jowrence: Scots familiar name for the fox, the equivalent of
== the English 'Reynard.' The origins of the name would seem
== to be doubtful. Jamieson suggests Corn. luern, Arm. lua,n,
== 'vulpes,' but inclines to the belief that the name 'lowiie'
== derives from some root expressive of deception. Cp. IDu.
==loeren, late M.H.G. and M.L.G. li2ren, to lie in wait. Sibbald
== substantial es this with a specimen derivation: 'Teut. lorer,
== fraudator ; lorcrye, fraus, lore, !llecebra.' If this is so,
== Lowrence is an attributive title, like Noble the Lion, etc.,
== and the form 'Lawrence' in Henryson is a misleading variant.
== In support of this suggestion, see Fables, 1. 2294:
==      'Lowrence come lourand, for he lufit never licht.'

449.=Dirzgie. The first word of the Antiphon at Matins in the Office
for the Dead, and used as a name for that service. (Ps. v. 8,
Dirige, Domine, Deus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam.)
Cp. the Want of Wyse Men, p. 189, 1. 19.
4S9. lyart loikkis: grey, or hoary, locks. Cp. Tes/amneni of Cresseid, p. no, 1. 162, and Burns, 'Cottar's Saturday Night,' 1. 1O5:
'His lyart haffets weating thin an' bare.'

477.=wawland: 'rolling his eyes.' A better reading than that provided by LI, 'walkit.'






is used here, as a personal noun, it is by no means common.483.=l'er/ok, Sftrutok, and ToJftoA'. Familiar hen-names. 'Pertok' ('partlot' in B) is, of course, Chaucer's Pemtelote. 'Sprutok,' which occurs also in The Tale of Colkelbie's Sow, 1. 117, may, as Gregory Smith suggests, be connected with Sftrotinus, the cock in the Latin Reynard, or with 'sprutlit,' speckled, as in Douglas, Virgil, 46, 4: 'And twys faldil thare sprutillit skynnis but dout.' 'Coppok,' the reading of B, is probably to be preferred to the other texts on this point. It has the support of alliteration, and is closer to the Reynardian form, Coppe (Carton, Coppen). Cp., too, Gower, Vox Cla,nantis, i. 54~ (ed. Macaulay), and the editor's note on the passage. If 'Toppok' is preferred, it should probably be taken to convey the sense of top or crest, as in 'tappit hen.' The '-ok' endings are probably onomatop~ic comnages.
486.='flow, murther, hay!' The reading 'reylock' in B has been dismissed by previous editors as probably corrupt. It was, however, pointed out by Professor Bruce Dickins, in the T.L.S.,amst February 1924, that the word was a technical term in Scots law. 'It is suggested that reylock is a corrupt form of the O.E. law term reafiac, "robbery," "rapine," which, hke htms~cn (hamesucken), survived in Scots legal terminology. It is found as reyfiaA'e, revelayk (=roboria) in the fifteenthcentury vernacular translation of the Assize Willelmi (Sc. Acts Parl. , i. 381). "Hi, murder, robbery !" gives excellent sense.
The Charteris and Harleian reading hay would suggest that the term was no longer familiar in the sixteenth century, but that need not exclude the possibility of its use by Henryson, who, to judge fmorn his fable of The Shee~˘ and the Dog, was well acquainted with the terminology and procedure, at any rate, of the canon law.'
497.=drowrie: An uncommon use of the word. It is commonly used to signify love in the abstract sense, Illicit or otherwise, a love token or gift, or the marriage-gift. In the sense of love, it is used in the Bruce, viii. 497-8:

'Than mychi he weil ask a lady
Hyr amowris, and hyr drowery.'

In the sense of a love.token, it is used in the Test. of Cresseid,
1.=583, and, as the marriage or Morwyn gift it is quoted by
J amiesoim from the Acts Ja. IV., 15O3, Ed. 1814, p. 24O
'.=. . the donation & gift of our souerane lady the qwenis
drowry & morwyn-gift eftir the form of the charteris.' As it
5OO.=curcheis: (O.F. couvreclzÚs, pl. of couvrechcf ) kerchief, commonly used as a cap or mutch. A false singular, 'curch,' was formed, and the true singular, 'curches,' became a fallacious plural. This is an eicample of the correct singular use.
511.=Sand Johne to borrow. Cp. Lyndsay, The Comfilayni of the~ Commoun Weill of Scotland (Laing, i. p. 38, 1. 996):

'Fair weill, quod I, and with sanct Jhone to borrow.'

Compare, too, the Wallace, iii. 336 ; Colkelbie's Sow (Laing, p. 258, 1. 153), and uses in Chaucer, Lydgate, James I., etc. St John as a witness or guarantor. Cp. The Sheet and the Dog, 1. 1234:

'. . . thairto ane Borrow (B borch) he fand.'

515.='wes never wedow sa gay!' The song has not been identified.
517.=c*almerglew: cp. Lynctsay (ed. Laing, ii. p. 11O, 1. 2163).
523-4.=The reading in B for these lines makes better sense.
533.=kittokis: 'Kittok,' a familiar name for a woman, frequently disrespectful and used in the sense of 'paramour' or 'wanton.' Dunbar's Kynd Kytiok and Lyndsay's Kittie's C'onfessioun illustrate the use of the name.
545.=kenneitis: see Glossary. Described by Reginald Scot as 'a hound of scent.'
546 ci=seq. Compare the names of the widow's dogs with those in Chaucer's version of the tale. Berk (birkye, B) is probably a form of the word 'birkie,' still in use, for 'a game fellow'- a trusty, stout-hearted dog. Berrie is the same name as Perrie, in the Sheej~ and the Dog, p. 43, 1. m m66. See JV.E..D., s.v. 'Pirrie.' Bell (B) is a common name for a collie-bitch to this day. Bell and Jiawsie Broun appear together in Dunbar's Dance of the Seven Deadly .5~ynnis, 1. 3O:

'Blak Belly and Bawsy Broun.'

Perhaps both dogs owe their names to their colour; cp.
Burns, The Twa Dogs, 1. 31, 'His honest, sonsie, baws'nt face.'
See iV.E.D., s.v. ' Bausond.' Ryfte scluzw (search covert) and
Bin weil are obviously attributive names. Curtas (Cortois),
the Reynardian name for the dog ; and Nuttieclyde, 'brown
Clyde,' a name, according to Giegory Smith, still in use.
568.=falset failyeis ay at the latter and. Note Richard Smith's anglicisation of this typical sentence.
575.=for ane yeir: the term of hire.
582.=in toftleid: in jeopardy.
6O3.=lo~f and le: to flatter and lie. A better reading than that in C, 'leif.'






J amieson suggests a derivation from S.G. mist-a, Dan. mis/-er,to lose, to sustain the want or loss of a thing.The Taill how this foirsald Tod maid his C˘fessioun
to Freir Wolf Waftskaith.
6i 8. wailling.~ hunting. Cp. wail/I, I. i68 suj~ra.
621.=This line is defective in all texts but B, which supplies the missing two syllables, ' Thetes.'
623.=Compare the 'cloudy hood' of Hesperus, the evening star, with the kerchief of Aurora, in 1. 5OO suj~ra.
629.=slernzs (O.N. stjarna). This form of the plural survives at least as late as Fergusson, RalThw. Fair, 11. 1-2:
'At ffalli'wrnas, whan nights grow lang,
And starnies shine fu' clear.'
642-3.=But Aslr&ab: Without astrclabe, etc. The fox knew the moving of the heavenly bodies by 'kind' as the Cock in Chaucer also did.
649-52.=There is obviously something wrong with these four lines. B offers the best reading. Sir W. A. Craigie suggests that 'ken' and 'men' are dittographies of 'kend' and 'mend,' and that 'Ene' in C is an attempt at improvement.
66i. widdinek, and Crakraij~.~ withy-neck, a criminal hanged with a rope of willow twigs; Crakrai~, crack-rope, a self-explanatory name for a gallows-bird.
666.=Dx/i'ur in Divinitie. The Wolf appears again in this role, in the fable of the Trial f the Fax, p. 38, 1. 1O52, where his red cap suggests the title.
667.=Wailskailh: one who lies in wait to do hurt, or 'skaith.' The name occurs in Caxton's Reynard: 'Ther is prentout, wayte scathe, and other of my frendis and alyes.'
675.=feir may here mean either 'fear' or 'demeanour.'
684.=and leuch: not so much 'laughed' as 'giggled.' Cp. I. 446 suj~ra.
693.=J3enedicitie: the invocation of blessing before confession.
698.=ArE Ihow cLrntrite. This is the first part of the Catholic sacrament of penance, Ci'ntritii'. The second part, CLrnfessii', is not ieported here for the reason advanced in II. 694-7. In the 'thrid part off penitence,' or Satisfactii, the Fox is no more satisfactory.
73O.=FLr grit mister: in the case of extreme need. The word is used to denote need, either as a verb or substantive, and sometimes, particularly, need of food:
'And now her heart is like to melt away
WI' heat and mis/er.'
(Ross's Relenore.)
731.=f~r neid may half na law: Fergusson, A. 649; Piers Plowman, ~x. 1. io; Heywood, p. 43.
736.=wallis wiude: the stormy waves; 'walterand,' in B, developes the sense.
751.=Schir Sal,,wnd: cp. the earlier episode in the Brus xix.
649 et seq., and the French Yso~tet: 'Quant Ysangrin vit le mouton si le salua . . . Et Ii dit: "Sawmon, Dieu te gart I "'
763.=ci'uth he wail: stalk. Cp. II. 6i8, i68, su~tra (notes).
776 et=seq. (B) cLrntritthun, cirn/essiiun, wilfull j~ennance, etc. The readings in Bannatyne, here as elsewhere, show fewer traces of Protestant revision, than those of the other texts.


The Taill of the S÷e & Air of the foirsaid Foxe, callit Father wer: Alswa the Par1tam~t of fourfuttit Beistes, haldin be the Lyoun.

8OO.=in j~urches: in bastardy Douglas, Virgil, 3O3, 4, has
O.F. ~rchais, an intrigue


'Son to the bustuous nobyl Sarpedon,
Inj~urches gel ane Thebane wensche apoun.'

Elsewhere in Henryson it has the sense of hunting for food, and of fraud.
8oi. Father war: i.e. worse than his father, on the analogy of 'Fatherbetter.' Fergusson (MS. 1O35), 'Mony ar father war, few father better.' See the following stanza.
8o8. Of verray kinde: by birth and nature. Note how cunningly the accent falls in this line.
827.='Ay rinnis the ffoxe, als lang as he fute hais.' Cp. Dunbar, Ej~etaj~he/Lr DLrnald Owre (ed. Mackay Mackenzie), p. 66:

'Ay rinnis the fox
Quhill he fute hais,'

and Knox, Rist., ed. Laing, i. ii6-'So that the Scotesh proverbe was trew in him: "So long rynnis the fox, as he fute hes." Fergusson, A. 8.
836.=T~ execute, Jo d, t~ salisfie: 'execute' in the legal sense-cp. mod. 'executors,' to do, to act for, on behalf of: cp. 'agent.' This couplet as it stands in C, a; and Bass, is probably a Protestant revision of the original couplet, represented by B.
84O.=maid all the wand l~ wa~g. Cp. Testament ~f Cresseid, p. ii O, II. 195-6.
843.=breist: the reading 'buste' in .1.? is probably the more correct:
'in a box or case.'






852.=Out of ane bus: the reading here should piobably be 'buist' as in CP113. See mote on 1. 843 suj5ra.
854.=sadlie: solemnlyr, impressively.
~=Nobill Lyoun: the conventional Reynardian epithet for the lion, in Willem,, Leeu, and Caxton.
864.=comj5eir: (Lat.co~rnftar -ere; Fr. comj5ar -oir) to present oneself at court, civil ~or ecclesiastical, in obedience to a summons. Cp. the Priests g1 Peblis:

'Amd sent to him his officer, but weir
Tinus but delay befoir him to comj5eir.'

873.=There appears tto be an attempt at a heraldic jest here, as Professor Bruc:e Dickins has pointed out (Times Literary Suj5ftlernent, 2i~st February 1924). The 'Three Leopards' (B) are the 1eo~pards of the English arms, and the lion is, of course, the Sccts ILon, enthroned, with sceptre, sword, and crown, as on thee Scots arms, who is thus being royally served. Compare the hines in Dunbar's Thrissil and the Rois, 96-99, for a similar he~raldic picture of the King of the Beasts. See notes, p. 238.
883.=Gatherings of beasts, similar to this, and founded on the medieval b'esha~ry, are common in Middle English and Middle Scois literature. Chaucer, in the Parliament of Foules,the author of the Kingis Q~uair, and Montgomerie, in the Cherrie and Ilie Slae, give simil~ar lists. Montgomerie's list may, as Gregory Smith suggests, owe something to Henryson's.
888.=J3e1ler~j5honI. Fo>r the nature of this 'beist of Bastardrie,' about which previous; editors have been silent, the reader is referred to the \Workes of Armo J ne deuided into three Bookes, en/i tuled, the Concordes of Arinorie, Ar morie of Honor, and of Cotes and Creastes, Collected and gathered J by John Bossewell Gentleman. I London: Henrie Ballard, 1597 (p. 66):
'Chyrnere. The fie~1d is partie per bend sinister, Gules and Sable, a Chymere, siluer.. This Chyrnere is a Beast or monster hauing three heads, one~ like a Lyon, an other like a Goate, the third like a Dragon, fingŘt & Chyrneram iriformem bestiam: ore Leo, post rernis partibus Draco, media Caprea. Quain quidam Philosophi non ~nimal,sed Ciliti~inontŰ esseaiunt,quibusdam locis Leones &~ Cap~eas nutrientem, quibusda ardentem, quibusd~ plenarm serpentibus. Hunc Bellerophons, habitabil~ fecit, vnde ChynnerŃ dicitur occidisse.
This Bellerophons~, or Bellerophon, the sonne of Glaucus, king of Ephyra, a maLn of much beautie and prowesse, was ardently
beloued of Stenobia, the wife of Pretus king of Ephyra, next aftei Glaucus, when she desired him to coffiit adoultrie with her, he fearing the vengance of Jupiter, God of hospitalitie, and remembring the friendship her husband had shewed him, refused, and put her away from him: Which she disdeyning, and being in a wood rage, accused him to her husband, that he rauLshed her, but he like a sober man, would not slea him in his owne house, deliuering him letteis to his wiues father, sent him into Lycia, who perceiuing the mind of Pretus, encouraged, & sent Bellerophon to destroy the two Monsters, Solymos, and Chim~ra, that he mighi be slaine under the colour of a valiant enterprise. But he atchyuing it nobly, retourned with honor. This historie foloweth more at large set forth in y░ Latin toongue by Stockrnahere, in his Coninientanes upon the Emblernes of Alciate.-Emb. iii. in these words.
89F. The Tigerfull of Tiranie: cp. the Kinšis Quair, I. io86:

'The fery tigere, full of felonye.'

895.=the Sj~in/h: probably a heraldic beast, but so far unidentified. As an animal the Sparth is unidentified. As a battleaxe he is comLnon enough, and if the passage is corrupt, which there is reason to believe it may be, the word may have been so intended. I am indebted here, as on many othei occasions, to Professor Bruce Dickins for suggestions that throw light on the obscurity of the te,~t. He writes, 'Could the original reading have been
"Thre leopardis as I haif tauld beforne,
The Anteloip, the Swan furth couth hir speid"

-a reference to the arms of Henry IV. with their supporters.
(Henry IV. had, as supporters to the royal arms of England,
a black anielope and a white swan, Henry V. and Henry VI.
a lion and an antelope Heraldry Simj5lzjied
p.=236, Manc/Iesfer, 191O]).'
If the word 'sparth' is to be retained, then we must seek for some reading that wi~l use it in its normal signification. Professor Dickins suggests

'The anteloip with a sparth furth couth speid'

-a reference to the heraldic antelope, armed, like the Norwegian lion, with a battleaxe.
896.=The ~eyn/e1 Panthjeir: 'peyiitet probably means 'spotted,' as in Spenser, Amoretli, 53. (But cp. Kingis Quair, I. io8o 'The palitere, like unto the srnanczgdyne' i.e. 'the emerald






In a Latin )iestiary printed by A. W. Rendell, P%ysiologus (London, 1928), p. g6, the panther is thus described: 'Qui niger ex albo conspergitur orhiculato.' 'Conspergitur' is glossed 'depingitur.' See J. Hall, Selections fro~n Early Middle English (Oxford, 192O), p. 194, and Notes.
898.=The Jo/ic Gillet: mare. B Jonet, S Gennet, a small Spanish horse. For 'gillet,' see Dunbar's Trio Marii! Wemen (ed. Mackay Mackenzie), L 114:

'He fepillis like a farcy aver that flyrit one a gillot.'

9O2.=(II) wodwyss: satyrs, or 'wild-men': glossed in Promj5t. Parv. as silvanus, satirus. Gregory Smith quotes from the Revels Account, 1513, when they appear as 'woodwossys or wyld men.' They commonly figure in heraldry as supporters.
9O3.=Hurcheoun: (O.F. crichon), urchin, hedgehog.
Ilirpland.. limping-the characteristic uneven gait of the hare. Cp. Burns, Holy Fair, 1. 7:

'The hares were hirplin' down the furrs,'

and Keats, Eve of St Agnes, 1. 3:

'The hare limped trembling through the frozen grass.'

9O6.=TIre wyld Once: probably a heraldic beast of the leopard kind. In a History of Mediaeval Ireland from 11OO-1513, by Edmund Curtis (p. 36, note), we read : 'The best Irish accounts of the battle are in Loch Ce, and in Ann. C/on. Gilla-na-naer O l)ovailin is called in Loch Ce "the bearer of the leopard standard" (fear iorn~har na h-onc/ion); however, "onchu" was a heraldic beast of uncertain species and the O'Briens also bad an "onchu."' In the English-irish Dictionary, T. O'Neill Lane (Nutt, 19O4), is the entry 'Leopard, orzcz~.'
~o7. Fibert: beaver (Lat. fiber). The appearance of the beaver in this line makes it more difficult to explain the 'bayer bakon' (B) in the preceding line ; although the polecat appears twice, once in this line ('fowmart') and in!. 912 ('Feitho').
)Io. Ratloun: (F. ra/on) little iat. Quite a common form of the word. I have found it in Topsell, Fourefooted fleas/es, for rats of various kinds. Cp. Burns, Halloween, 1. 194:

'A ratton rattl'd up the Wa'.'

See Lyndsay (ed. Laing), 'II. 2495, 3982.
Glebard:=(B globeit; S glybard). I have been unable to identify this animal, which is (from the context) most probably one of the rodent kind and is most certainly not the glowworm, as is tentatively suggested by G. G. S. See note on 1. 913.
911. qu/Iryitand: whining, not 'striking,' as in G. G. S. Cp. A.S. kr/nan, and Lyndsay, Answer to the Kingis Flyling, I. 6o (ed. Laing, p. 1O7): '. . . quhimperand with mony quhr yne.'
913.=Mer/rik: marten. Topsell (Fourefooted Beasles, 16O7, pp.
495-6) writes, 'princes and great Nobles are clothed therewith, every skinne being woorthe a Frenche crowne or foure shillings at the least.' In the Welsh laws of Howe! dda (1Oth cent.) 'Tn wrilys a ddyly y frenines: croen beleu ; a llostlydan a chanlwng.' (Three furs which the queen is entitled to:
the skin of a marten ; of a beaver; or an ermine.) And in the Leg-es Wallica~ lib. ii., cap. viii., ž viii. : 'Tres sunt lymbi regis que ad regem de iure pertinent; scilicet, lr'ostledan fiber beleu martes et carrlung mustela candida pellis Ilostledan ibri din~~dium libre valet: carrlung Lmustela candida lx~ denanios ; beleu martis ,cxtt iijjor denarios valet ; et si in predatione inventi fuerint, regis erunt.'
Cyvrezthian Cy7nru: 'There are three kinds of vermin in law:
a marten; a beaver; and an ermine ; they are recognisable, in law for their skins with which th queen's robes are adosned wherever hey may be killed,
It is at least possible that the third of these, the ermine, is the unidentified 'glebard'; in so complete a list of vermin it is strange to find the ermine absent. It occurs in a similar context in the King-is Quair, 1. 1O95.
the Cunning and the Con: the rabbit (cony) and the squirrel.
914.=Bowranbane: (Bourabant S: Bourabane R/: lurdane lane B) the Werewolf(?) Bass, S and h' offer almost identical readings, and that of B is probably an attempt to improve a corrupt text-as far as we are concerned, howeves, confusion is worse confounded. In default of any better suggestion, the editor offers the following :-Bournf: sub.ct. rnasc. Espdce d'animal fantastique ainsi nomm~ a Paris, et qui Útoit appelt~ ~t Orleans le nzulet ode!, a Blois et a Angers le lou garon, et it Tours Ic roy huguet, d'oii le acm liuguenot. Var/an/es:
BourrC, Bourry, Bour;u (Dic/tonnaire Bis/orique de l'Ancien Lang-age Francois, par La Curne de Sainte.Palaye (1877), t. iii.). Sir W. A. Craigie wiites (of flowranbane and Glebard):
'If they are Henryson's (and not due to later corruptions), he probably found them in some list similar to his own, and may riot have known what they meant.'
Lerioun: perhaps a young rabbit. Jamieson gives 'Lepron, Leproun: a young rabbit or hare': and quotes from Buigh Records, Edinburgh, ii. 231 '. . . conyngis and leprones.'






D.F. lej5orin, a hare, Other suggestions are (F. i/ron) the grey dormouse, and (F. levron) a small greyhound.
918.=Musk: G. G. S. suggests the civet-cat, and quotes Florio, s.v. 'Lattitio; a kind of Muske or Zivet-cat.'
93O.=And stez i-ic nane that ar to me ~t rostra/f. Cp. Dunbar's Tlzrissil and Ike Rois, 1. 119;

'Quhois noble yre is~arcere~rostrczIis'

(ed. Mackay Mickenzie, p. ito). The editor's note on the line reads: 'The MS. reads ~roceir, but the reference is clearly to the motto cited, in connection with the armorial bearings of the kings of Scotland, in Le Simbol Armor/al, etc., Pins, 1455 : I'arcere ftroslratis sc/i nob/i/c ira leonis, which is almost the line in the text (see Note in S.T.S. edition). The scribe has probably expanded wrongly a sign of abbreviation.'
948.=garfence: a term used in Scots law, at the opening of a Court or Parliament for the formula in which the lieges are ordered to abstain from all unnecessary disorder or interrupt ion.
949.=absence: absentees, defaulters. Cp. 'Ignorance' (C) 1. 149, for Ignorant is.'
9~O his ft~yni/f C~ilf Armour. cp. I. 896, 'The pi~yntet Pantheir,' and note.
97O.=bukkude: hide-and-seek. Cp. 1. 333 su~ra.
999.=Ramftand: rearing, in anger ; the term is probably used descriptively here, but it cannot, of course, be divorced entirely front its heraldic significance. The heraldic jape in stanza 125 has already been noted ; and it may as well he said here that the student of medieval poetry, art, and architectural ornament will lose the significance of much of his study unless he is conversant at least with the terms and forms of heraldry. The unnatural natural history of Middle Scots and Middle English poetry is as dependent on heraldic form and jargon, as are the decorative arts as found, for example, in Roslin Chapel or Melrose Abbey. Cp. note on 1. 873.
1OO4. contumax: a Sc. legal term, borrowed from O.F. law. Guilty of contempt of Court.
1OO5. Co,irtlie Knax: that is, your lawyer's quibbles, not courtier's blandishments.
1O14. Chanceliary: the chancery hand, ultimately derived from the old Roman cursive, in which charters and other legal and business documents were written. Cp. the corresponding passage in Caxton's Reynard (chap. ~7) where the wolf says.
'I can wel frenshe latyn englissh and duche. I have goon to scole at oxenford I haue also wyth olde and auncyent doctours ben in the audyence and herde plees and also haue gyuen sentence lam lycensydinbothelawes whatmanerwrytyng that ony man can deuyse I can rede it as perfyghtly as my name.'
1O3O. To sleij5 in ha/li. Cp. Fergusson, MS. 823.
1O33. Felix quem: quoted by Erasmus in his Adagia, and translated by Richard Taverner, 1539, 'Heiis happy, whom other mens perills maketh ware.' The proverb appears in many Scots collections: 'Better learn frae your neebor's skaith than your am.' Fergusson's Scottish Proverbs (S.T.S. 1924), B. 152, has the proverb. Cp. Chaucer, Troilus and Criscyde, iii. 329:

'For wise ben by foles harm chastised.'
1O44. Ane Tri15 of La,nbis: the collective noun 'trip' is the correct technical use for sheep, goats and swine. Cp. 1. 744 suj5ra, 'ane trip off Gait': that it is correctly used of mice, in 1. 14O9 infra, I am not so sure.
1O52. yOur Doctour of Div/n/lie.. cp. 1 666 .cuftra, and note.
1O64. The greifesi clerk/s. Fergusson, A. 857, Heywood, p. its, and Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, A. 4O54. Diebler (Henrisone's Fabeldiclziungen, 1885, p. 51) points out the parallel between this line and the concluding words of Caxton's Reynard, chap. 27, sect. i. : 'Now I here wel it is true that I long sylh haue redde and herde that the beste clerkes ben not the wysest men I'
1O83. be ftraciik: by experience. In this case, the modern sense is 'by circumstantial evidence.'
1O89. j5ariy fresoun (B). Surely the~ sense of 'party' here is not 'partly' or 'pretty,' as G. G. S. suggests, but 'petty-treason'- treason against a subject, as opposed to betrayal of the sovereign. In this case the fox owed no allegiance to the ewe, but the act of violence committed on the lamb, in open violation of the lion's proclamation of peace, is construed as treason in the second degree.
1O95. .b'owcher: Executioner: for 'basare' (B), cp. Barbour, Legends, Cristofore, 597: and N.E.D., s.v. 'Baser.'
1111 c/ seq. Here, as elsewhere, B gives readings that show less trace of Protestant revision.
1126. Will (how remember, Man. The reminder, and the tone, are among the commonplaces of medieval literature; surviving in song and ballad to a later day. In 'Ane compendious booke of Godly and Spirituall Songs . . . with sundrie






ballates changed out of prophaine Sanges,' &c. (Andro Hazt, Edinb., 1621) appears the ballad, 'Remember, O thou man'

'Remember, O thou man, O thou man, O thou man,
Remember, O thou man, thy time is spent.
Remember, O thou man,
How thou art dead and gone,
And I did what I can,
Therefore, repent.'

1134. (B) sagis: assays, assails, or lays siege to.


The Taill of the Scheip ad the Doig

1148. Consistor~a: the Consistory Court, or ecclesiastical court. Lord 1-lailes (Ancienz' Scot/u/I Poems, 177O) and others have iemarked on the fulness and precision with which the form of process in this court are here described.
I 56-7.=Me Sus~ensioun, grit Cursing, and Interdiclioun. For a full account of these ecclesiastical penalties, see Gregory Smith's edition (Hi., p. 2O, 1. 1148, 9, note), when reference is also made to a full text of a vernacular 'terrible cursing,' by Gawin, Archbishop of Glasgow, dated 28th October 1525.
1159. (S)PerryDogge: cp. 1. 546 sui5ra, for 'Berrie'; and see 1. 1166 z,~fra.
ii6o. Schir Corbie Ray/n: (F. corbeau), Sir Corbie, the Raven. Frequently 'Corbun' or 'Corboun.' 'An of messagers corbun' (Cursor Mundi, V. 1892). Cp. Lindsay, 1592, p. 41,

'He send furth Corbie Messenger,'

and Fergusson, MS. 596, when the sense is 'a messenger whose tidings come not at all or too late.'
A~b~bariIour:=the officer of the consistorial court.
1173. Qulien JJes.berus to schaw his face began. Lord Hailes writes:
'The Wolf held his court while the sun was down. "On every Wednesday morning next after Michaelmas Day, at cocks crowing, there is by ancient custom a court held by the Lord of the honour of Raleigh, which is vulgarly cafled the lawless court-because held at an unlawful or lawless hour"-Blount, Customs of ~fanours, p. 147.' Cp. note on TestamenlofCresscid, 1. 48.
1198. (C) thochiz' 1 myc/Ŕt not :1 lat: though I could not prevent
it. The sense of 'lat' here is the common one ; 'let,' to hinder or obstruct, and not 'to say' (O.N. id/a) as G. G. S. suggests.
1217. Codie3 and Dzgeslis new and aid: a reference, as Lord Hailes points out, 'to the ridiculous division of the Pandects, into dzg~es1uin ye/us, infortiaturn, el novum, made by Bulgarus in the twelfth century' (Ancien/ Scoltiili Poems, 177O).
1218. B is the only text to give a correct reading here. The readings of C, II, and Bass are probably a scribal misreading of 'Contra et pro, strait . .
1219. B gives the best version of this line.
1228. cou/h he not aj'~eil1. 'No appeal lay from the judgement of the arbiters. They were judges chosen by the parties themseLves, and parties cannot appeal from their o~n deed' (Hailes, u.s., p. 329).
1234. ane Borrow: (Borch B), see note on 1. 511 subra.
1241. meld: cp. Chaucer, Canterbu~y Talei, A. 338O-I

'And, for she was of toune, he profreth meede
For som folk wol ben wonnen for richesse,'
== and Langland, Piers Plowman, B., Prol. 215, and iii. 12, etc.
=1265.=Hailes (u.s., p. 329) writes . 'It is remarkable that the whole
== satire of the fable is aimed at the ecclesiastical judge,
== whereas the application is to the civil. Henrysoun probably
== stood more in awe of the court spiritual than of the
== temporal.'
=1273.=borteoun. a misreading for 'porteouss' (B), which was originally
== the portable breviary, then any book or manual (cp. the
== Portuus of Nobilnes, Chepman & Myllar, 15o8, cited in the
== Introduction), and in this case ~as 'a roll of the names of
== offenders, which, by the old practice of the Justiciary Court,
== was prepared by the Justice-Clerk from the informations of
== crimes furnished by the local authorities' (Bell, DicE, of the
== Law of Scotland). The form portouns'in Lyndsay's Sat,'re
== of the Thrie Estaits (x6oz), 1. 769, is probably due to a
== misprint (turned letter).
=1278.=tat: (skat B) exact. Cp. scat, tribute (O.N. skatEr).
=1286.=Cons~sIorie: the word requires here to be shortened to some
== such form as 'Constone.' Cp. 'Constry' (Lyndsay, ed. Laing,
==  iii. p. 149, 1. 5757).
=1292.=sair: the reading 'hair' (B) has albterative justification.
=1296.=discerne: adjudge. 'The saidis lordis and estatis of parlia
== ment findis, decernzs, and declaris, that the said Frances,
== sumtyme erll Bothuile, hes committit and done oppen and
== manifest tressoun aganis our said souerane lord,' &c. (Acts
== Ja. VI., 1593, Ed~n. 1814, p. II).
=13O6.=mic/It: meid (B) makes a better reading here.






1358.

1386.
14O1.
Cresseid, II. 244-5.
fret/ic gilt: perhaps 'party-gilt'; partly made of, or covered with, beaten gold.
Cp. 1. 14O1, and note.
denyc. The reading 'dedene' in B is not an error, as G. G. S. states. There are other uses of 'dedene' in the sense of 'deign':
The Taill of the Lyon & the Mous.
1328. qullyte and reid: the traditional colours of flowers in the courtly allegory.
'Of blomyt branchis and flowris quhite and rede'
(Douglas, Virgil, xii., Prol.)

The actual flowers are usually lilies and roses, and have several contrasted significations-the lily-white symbolising chastity, loyalty, modesty, etc.; the rose-red symbolising courage, pride, lust, youth, etc.
1345. Here as elsewhere the Catholic tendencies of B have been submitted to a Protestant recension.
1348. These first three stanzas of this fable come nearer to the conventional opening of the Chauceiian dream.allegory than Hentyson approaches elsewhere.
135O. C'Iiemeis: loose gown or robe. B's reading chymmeris is the plural of' chymmer'or' chimer,' a loose gown (O.F. charnarre, m.L. chz,nera). CIia,nbela/e: a wool-and-silk woven cloth. In medieval tradition the wool was always camel's-wool, Cp. the Kingis Quair, st. 157

'For chamelot, the camel full of hare.'

See 7t/.E.D., s.v. 'camelct.'
1352 et seq. Compare the closely parallel lines in the Testament of
'-I dedeinye not to ressaue
Sic honour certis quhilk feris me not to haue.'
(I)ouglas, Virgil, 23, 3O.)
'--My Lordis to heir that will deden
(CoTheThie Sow, Prohern.)

Also, Lancelot of the Laik, 11. 948, 24O.
14O7-8.=Cp. Il. 756-7 suftra.
1442. The swell sesoun: early summer; a common medieval phrase for the opening of the year.
1455. vili~e,id: to abuse or treat slightingly (O.F. vll,~ende,-, or ad. Lat. vilz~endere). The whole negotiations are conducted in full legal style.
=146O.=harlit: not 'hanged' but 'dragged.' Cp. 1. 772 suftra.
=1469.=Assessouris: court officials who act as assistant or adviser to a
== judge or magistrate.
=1517.=Rod:=path; not the same word as 'road.' See N.E.D.,
== s.v.='Rod.'
=152O.=Kennettis: see 1. 555 suj5ra.
=1562.=about: 'above' in S. One of the few instances in which the
== English text gives a more satisfactory reading than any of
== the=Scots versions.
=i58o.=lowne andle: unruffled and sheltered fiom the wind. G. G. S.
== quotes Holland, Buke of the liowlat, 1. 18:

'The Land lowne was and le, with lyking and luf.'

1599. kinbute: literally, the wergeld paid by a murderer to the relations of his victim, and so, by extension, a debt or obligation.
1614. Attempts to identify these lines with any particular historical events have been, and are bound to be, futile.



The Preiching of ~he Swallow.

1633. deidlie: mortall, sinful, in the theological sense.
1636. Aristotle, Me/aft/i. I. i31., i. 3.
1657. sternis: cp. 1. 629 suftra, and note.
1661. The fyre, the Air, the Walter, and the ground: the four elements, which play so large a part in medieval physiology, medicine, etc. These lines seem to have been closely imitated by an anonymous poet, quoted by G. G. S. (IJenryson, iii. p. 26).
1679. furrit on everiThfent: cp. 1. 912 suftra.
i685. harvest. Henryson gives the seasons their old names. Somer, Harvest, Wynter, and Ver.
i686. I/jr barnis bent!: bent! is a past part. from bene pleasant, comfortable ; used here in the sense of 'filled.'
173O. ferlie: the usual sense of this word IS 'strange' or 'wonderful,' but it is probably better rendered here, and under, at 1. 177O, as G. G. S. suggests, by 'sudden.'
1735. croift: the top, or crest, ofa tree.
1754. A/am levius . . . No immediate source for this line has been discovered. It looks like a variant of Nam provisa minus lela nocere solent, at v. 1O of Gualterus Anglicus, De Hirundine et Avibus (L. H ervieux, Les Fabulistes la/ins, ii. 394).







1763. scho fischet lang befoir the Nel: Fergusson, A. 379, MS. 419. Cp. Towneley Plays, p. 1O4, 1. i~~ Heywood's Proverbs, p. 67, etc.
1766. Tue ne,~ to stouj~: Fergusson, A. 486.
1775. Cp. Piers Plowman, 1. 6:

'Me byfel a ferly-of fairy, me thou 3te.'

1788. ~yme: cry. No other example of the word has been recorded.
18O7. friendes hardi/ze beid: 'so be it, friends, by all means.'
~ The sense is, of course, 'God and the holy Rood keep me from him' not the sense suggested by the order of the sentence as printed.
~822. ,narkjj' to tile ,nure cp. 1. 356 suJ~ra.
1825 el seq. All editors have commented on the accuracy of this account of flax preparation. Dunferm]ine, which is still the chief centre of the linen industry in Scotland, was associated with the manufacture at least as early as 1491, when six 'waljstei s' were charged with 'strubblance' or breach of the peace. This passage, therefore, may record an instance of local o])servatton and description, though the methods and terms arc, of course, quite general. It is, at any rate, the earliest known verse-account of the flax mdustry.
1863. The two readings, mocht (cBHt) and nocht (Bass/I), require different senses of 'quhill.' In the first case it would be 'while '-' While it might avail . . ,' and in the second, 'till'-' Till it avails him not (is too late to he of any use.)'
189O. autenti/~'. serious, important. Cp. the use in Tue T,ial of the Fox-, 1.1O13 iura:

'He is Autentik, and ane man of age.'

195O. It has been suggested that Montgomerie, ~n the C'herrze and the Slae (st. 13), is ai1ud~ng to Henryson and this fable

'To lait I knaw, quha hewes to hie,
the spe~ll sail fall into his eye
to lait I went to schooles
to lait I hard the swallow preich,
to=lait etcperience dois teich- the School-maister of fooles.'

The conjunction of the 'School-ma~ster' allusion with the undoubted reference to this fable makes the surmise a tempting one.
The PaUl of the Wolf that gat the N ekherig throw the wrikis of the Foxe that begylit the Cadgear

1952. As myne Authour: the source of this fable, one of Henryson's best, is yet unknown, but Professor Bruce Dic1~ins suggests that it may be an elaboratton of the Bestiary stoly of the Fox feigning death in order to catch carrion-crows or ravens. *
1962. Russell: (O.F. ru~sel, reddish) one of the traditional names of the fox in the Reynard cycle. Cp. Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale, B. 4525.
1995. senyes: the reading of C, 'son3eis,' is certainly the better reading here.
1997. False! will failye ay. Cp. 1. 568 su~zfra, and note.
1998. Cp. Fergusson, A. 184.
2OO1. Ican nocht fische: a reference to the adage in Heywood's Proverbs, p. 6o. Cp. the lines in Macbeth, I. vii. 44:

'Letting "I dare not" wait upon "I would,"
Like the poor cat i' the adage?'

and see, too, Fergusson, A. 9O4, MS. 1542 ; Chaucer, Hous of Fa,ne, 1783-5 ; and Trinity Coil. Carnb. MS. (c. 125O):

'Cat lufat visch ache nele his feth wete.'

2O1O. to draw the stra befoir the cat: Fergusson, A. 519; Heywood,
p.=15O.

2O13. reid Raij': a 'bowcher's' or hangman's rope.
2O36. silver seik: usually greedy or miserly ; here, 'short of cash.' 'Argentangia, the syluer sickness,' also called the 'silverquinsy.' (Elyot, Lat. Dict., 1548.)
2O41. traisl (?): (C) probably a misprtnt, caused by a misreading of 'craft,' 'c' and 't,' and 's' and 'f' being easUy confused.
2O63. Me Devyll . . . deidin ane dyke. Fergusson, A. 744

'Seldome lyes the divel dead by ane dycksyd.'

Cp. Towneley Plays, p. 123, 1. 229.
2O58-9.=sum wyfis malisone . - . For ftulfrie ~yking. Cp. S~ Johne Rowlis' Cursing upoun the steilaris of his fowlis (Bann. MS., S.T.S., ii. 277), 1. io: 'Godis braid malesone mot thay half.'
2O74. Till Flanderis: to the skin-merchants of the Low Countries.
2O83. liuntis uft. Cp. Romeo and Juliet, III. v. 34. An ancient song, written, according to Puttenham (Arte of English Poesie, 1589), by 'one Gray,' in the time of Henry VIII.






=plough.and the Protector Somerset. References to the air are to be found in Alex. Scott's Of May, c. i56o (S.T.S., p. 23, I. ~ and in ihe Comftiaynt of Scotlande, 1549 (E.E.T.S., p. 66, and Inirod., pp. lxx,cvii., lxxxviii.). See, for a full account of the tune, Chappell's Foj5uiar Music of the Olden Time, i. 6o.
2O89. Nekhering: a blow on the neck, or cuff on the ear. G. G. S. quotes a gloss: 'A Nekherynge, coiap/ius,' from Ca/h. Angi., 1483, p. ~i (ed. Herrtage, E.E.T.S.).
21O2. lyc/itife he iq~. Cp. The Ressoninš betuix Az~-e and Yowl/i,
1.=17, p. 179.
21O8. Ane wzcht,nan: cp. Fergusson, A. 1O.
212O. thirfourtie d~zyis.~ Lent.
2148. The reading of CHt, 'dow no~ me beir' is beUer here, and accoids better with II. 2149-5O.
2154. In ftrinczbio. The firsi words of Genesis and the Goc~Úel of S/Jo/in; con~monly used as a piece of ecclesiastical jargon.
2175. 'So/tile': either as printed, part of the Cadger's speech, or a descr~pt~ve adverb, mearnng 'under his breath.' There ~s no indication in the MSS. or pnnted texts which reading should be adopted.
2198. Bastoun: this form preserves the 's' as in O.F. barton.
2213. cold sa reid; red is the conventional colour of gold in medieval and Renaissance literature, surviving, indeed, to our own day. C~edrnon's Genesis, 24O4: 'Hi . 3esawon ofer since salo hlifian, reced ofer readw;z golde': Stewart, Cron. Scot., ii. 98 (1535): 'Sex thousand 3eirlie. . . . Into tribute of fynest gold so reid.' And Scott, Bride of La';j,nerrnoo,-, ii. 'From the red gold keep thy finger.


The Paul of the Fore, that begylit the Wolf,
in the sohadow of the Mone

=The somewhat primitive methods of agriculture described in this fable are curiously and exactly paralleled by those apparently employed in ~he Island of Lewis in the early nineteenth century. In a letter ~o S~r Walter Scoit in i8oj, James Hogg commented on Ihe Lewis meihod of ploughing in the following terms:

=could venture a wager that Cain himself had a more favourable method of tilling the ground. The man was walking by the side of the plough1 and guiding it with his right hand. With the left he carried a plough-pattle over h~s shoulder, which he frequently heaved in a threatening nianner at such of the horses as lagged behind but as it had the same effect on them all, and rather caused the most fiery ones to rush on, he was obliged sometimes to
throw it at the lazy ones. The coulter is very slender, points straight down, and is so placed that if it at all rip the ground it hath no effect in keeping the plough steady. The horses, impatient in their nature, go very fast, and the plough being so ticklish, the man is in a perpetual struggle, using every exertion to keep the plough in the ground, and after all, the furrow is in many places a mere scrape. The four ponies go all abreast, and such a long way before the plough, that at a little dislance I could not imagine they had any connection with the man or it. They were all four tied to one pole, and a man, to whom the puller is a much more applicable name than the driver, keeps hold of it with both hands, and walking backward ~s fast as he can, pulls them on. Those of them that walk too fast he claps the pole to their nose, which checks them. He finds means also to carry a small goad, with which he strikes the lazy ones on the face, asserting that that makes them spring forward. I had once an old brown mare-if he had struck her on the face he would have got her no farther in that direction. A man can scarcely conceive a more disagreeable employment than that of this "driver" as he is called. The ploughrnans post being such a very troublesome one he is mostly in a bad humour, and if the line of horses angle, the plough ~n spite of his teeth is pulled out of the land to the side on which the line is advanced. This puts him into a rage, and he immediately throws the pattle, or a stone, at the hindmost. Now, although the man may be a tolerable good archer, yet passion may make him miss, and the driver run a risk of meeting with the fate of Goliath of Gath. But granting Ihis should never happen, and the ploughman's aim should always hold good, yet "I own 'tis past my comprehension" how a man can walk so fast the whole day in a retrograde direction without falling, when he must that moment be trodden under foot by the horses. 





2249. bud: usually used in the sense of 'bribe'; here rather as 'gift' or 'offer.' Cp. 1. 1278 sujtra.
2259. this, Pray: the sense 'this (or 'thus'), pray~' adopted by G. G. S. and other editors may be correct, but there is equal justi~cation for the interpretation 'this prey?' with 'prey' in the sense of something seized or taken by force. See JV.E.D., s.v. 'prey' (4).
227O. j5lank. Previous editors have treated this as an arbitrary rhyme-form of 'plack, but this is not the case. The form 'piank' connects with the Gaelic word J'lang, 'piack'; for similar nasal infix, compare such forms as 'baliant' beside 'baliat.' The plack was a small copper coin, worth ~d. (or four pennies Scots), and was used commonly to express the idea of something trifling and vaiueless. The printer's Advertisement at the end of Lyndsay's Works (St Andrews, i554) concludes: 'thay ar nocht wortlie ane plake.'
2285-6.=For it is said in Proverb, 'But lawle . . .' I have been unable to identify this proverb wiih any in Scripture. Cp. Barbour's J]rus, i. 365-374.
23~4. on the Toddis Taill. It is unlikely that any pun is intended here.
2322. ifuddis: cp. 1. 1278 and 1. 2249 sujtra, and notes.
2332. God is gane to slez)5. The Sleep of God was a common expression for times of hardship and oppression. Cp. the well-known passage in the Peteiborough Chronicle

=pe land was al fordon mid suilce thedes, and hi s~eden openlice t~at Crist slep and his halechen.'

2335. Fergusson, A. 877, and Heywood, p. ii n. Cp. the line in the Canterbury Tales, A. 4i34, for an almost identkal version of the proverb:

'With empty hand men may none haukes tulle.'

2353. Cabok, cheese ; Mod. Scots, 'kebboc1~.'
2355. Sorner Cheis: cheese made in summer, when the milk is at its best. The phrase survives yet in Scots use.
2372. hors: Cl-/Bass, elc. Probably a scribal error for 'hous' (house) as in SRI. The latter reading is supported by 1. 2374, 'woke the dure'(watched or guarded the door).
2383. bellie blind: 'Blind-man's buff' or 'Blind-Harry.~ The phrase is a common one in M. Sc. poetry. For a note on the identity of Blind Harry and the web of confusion which has been spun round the name, see Dunbar, ed. Mackenzie, Appendix D, p. 242.
24O1. quztclarne: (A.F. guiteclamer) legal term for a formal discharge or release.
24O2. darE: draught, a perfectly easily-understood form. dart= drat, with the usual scribal abbreviation and Scots metathesis of 'r.'
2418. thus fairis it of Fortoun: perhaps the commonest of medieval poetic commonplaces-the wheel of Fortune. S is more laughably at fault here than over any other reading.
2424. thair is na mair to tell: a more honest statement of the case than is usual in Chaucer, who used the phrase as a detainrng hand upon the arm of his reader while he gathered breath for another thousand lines.
2441. wyld: beguiled, through the wiles or 'wrinkis' of the Foxe.


The Taill of the Wolf and the Wedder

253i. kenenes. This reading agrees in sense with the emendation 'cunning' supplied byG. G. S. for the orig. 'cumming' of
C.=But the sense of the passage is better met by the original reading. The Wolf knew nothing of the Dog's 'cunning,' but of his 'cumming' he had good reason to know.
2553. /.'atche: not 'catch' but 'chase,' as in C.
2557. enchessoun (O.F. encheson, F. encheofr, lit, to fall in, hence to be in fault). Here, 'reason, occasion.'
26O8. Hall benkis. Cp. The Priests' of PebUs, 614:

'For wit thou weii, Hal binks ar ay slidder'

and Fergusson, A. 335.


The Taill of the Wolf and the Lamb

2632. and bruke. There is little to choose between this reading and 'the bruke' I-ItS, 'this bruke' B; but the latter reading seems to be supported by 1. 265O infra.
2648. ascence: certainly a better reading than 'offens' (B).
2673. refuse: spare, or let go; 'chereis' (C) would have some such sense as 'favour.'
2679 et seq. A brief account of the state of the law as it concerned the ordinary man. This passage should be compared with
== the longer account ~n the Sche;J' and the Doig, pp. 42 et seq.
=269O.=Inslantgyis: the present or recognised custom.
=2697.=Be his~ woundis: a full form of the oath later abbreviated to
== '~Swounds!'






27O8. Maul men: tenants. Cp. 'mauling,' I. 2734==smaIl farm for which rent is paid; and 'Mailleris,' 1. 2744=cottars or small farmers.

'Ye saw yoursel how wee! his mailin' thrave.'
(Fer~šusson, 1785, p. 77.)

2716. Poete: (CHBzss) a scribal error for 'poleit,' as in B. S has the right sense, with 'suttell.'
2738. crozz5 and cuff: crops and cattle; the small-holder's sole sources of income.
2743. Goddis lane: by God's gift or loan. G. G. S. quotes Chaucer, C. T. D. iS6r:

God be thanked of his bone !'

2744. Village: permission to pasture cattle.
2745. Gressorne: in Scots law, the fine paid by a tenant to his superior on taking up, or renewing, a holding. 'Gressuinas di~imus summas pecuniae, quae in principio assedationes aut solvuntur aut piomittuntur, supra annuain mercedem' (Craig, Jus Feudale, 1732, Gloss. p. 49. )
275O. Court: the reading in B, 'Cairt,' is almost certainly right.
2752. withozthn Melt or waše. These were not the usual conditions. It was customary to provide meals on these occasions.
2755. walter caill: soup made without meat. Cp. 1. 321 suj5ra.


The Taill of the Paddok & the Mous

279O. schir Afous: deme (B) accords better with the rest of the text, in which the mouse is referred to as 'scho '-cp. 1. 2779 et seq.
28O9. facultie or gin: skill or contrivance.
2819. fronsil: frounced, wrinkled. Cp. Testa~nenIof Cresseid, 1. 1

'His face frosnit, his lyre was lyke the Leid,'

where 'frosnit' is a misprint for 'fronsit.' The error occurs again in The Flyting of Monigoinerie and Pa/wan, 1. 575

'With sco~r~s and crakis athort his froisnil front.'

2827. 25rocei&s: G. G. S. assumes that this reading and 'persavis '(B) are scribal misreadings of 'persewis' (written 'persevis '), but there is no reason to reject the CII Bass reading.
283O. This flne shou!d almost certainly read: 'Ane thrawin will, ane thrawin Phisnomy.' See the reading of C,
=2831.=Lonuin: a popular abbreviated form of 'cu!orum,' the end of
== 'in secula secu!orum,' signifying conc!usion. For similar
== corruptions the reader is referted to Merry Wives of Winds~on,
I.=i. 5, 6

'. justice of peace, and Coram.
Shal. Ay, cousin S!ender, and Cust-alorum.'

2834. Fonfain thingis: Fergusson, A. 8oi.
2838. in all place: the reading (B) 'in a place is probably to be prefei red.
2842. Jolie Absolon: tradit'iona! medieval type of perfect beauty. Cp. Chaucer's Ballade from the Legend of Good Women, Prol. B, !!. 249-69:

Hyd, Absolon, thy gilte tresses clere ;'

2854-5.=Cp. !l. 2O44-5 suj~ra.
2873. carj'and: deceiving or lying. If the reading 'trappald' (CIII) be taken, some emendation is necessary. G. G. S. suggests crappald (scribal confusion of 'c' and 't') and quotes 'crapault' (= toad) from Caxton. (Fr. craj~and.)
2883. manesworne: (now obsolete except in Scots and northern dialects) perjured, forsworn.
2897. ballell: in the o!d sense of 'duel,' as in the phrase 'ordeal of batt!e.'
29O4. bellzflaucht: a particu!ar method of skinning, in which the skin is pulled whole over the head.
291O. The Moralitas is in 8-line Ballade form.
2927. frank andfre: technical phrase, derived from feudal law.
2945. Now gay gowns, now poor clothes, tended as carefu!!y as though they were fine.
=The reading of B is more obvious and satisfactory. 2946. jItche: fitchew, or fish (as in B)?
2972. exem~till and ane si,nililude. Cp.!. 47 su~tra.


The Testament of Cresseid

4.=tragedie: in the medieval sense-a fall from fe!icity to misery, mplying no sense of dramatic construction.
fervent: intense or bitter; used of cold until 1634. N. E.D. quotes from Stewart, Cronzklis of Scotland, ii. 337, 'The fervent frost so bitter wes' (~535).
5.=Aries: the Ram, the sign of the Zodiac which the sun entered on i3th March and left on iith April.
in=middis of/he Lent: about the beginning of April. This exact dating of a poem by the signs of tile Zodiac, or the Christian






calendar (or even more explidt statement) is in the true medieval tradition. Cp. Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, Prol. B, io8, or Hous of Fame, 63 and xii.
15.=the glas: K~naston's note on this passage runs: Per vitra, etc.:
Id est, per fenestram vitreis quadris compactam quarum rarior erat vsus, nisi in templis aut ecclesijs, ob magnos nempe sumptus in compagibus plumbeis componendis, cum artifices nondum excogitassent machinam instar molendini ad plumbeos bacillos ducendos & in canali formandos jam accommodatum, sed magno labore solebant crebris morsubus dolabr~ excauare virgulas plumbeas Vt quadra~ vitre~e illis inh~xerent immot~.'
Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish ambassador, in a letter dated 25th July 1498, wrote: 'The towns and villages are populous. The houses are good, all built of hewn stone, and provided with excellent doors, glass windows, and a great number of chuinneys.'
(The Days of James IV: ed. G. Gregory Smith, 19OO.)

23.=To quhoi;;e su,n tyme I heehi obedience. Henryson represents hjrnself here, and here only, as a worshipper ~n the temple of Love.
27.=laItit. prevented. Cp. 'thocht I mycht not ~t lat' (Fables (C) 1. 1198).
36.=1 mend flee fyre, for a comparable picture of a winter interior, see Douglas's ,#~.neid, Prol., Bk. vii.
43.=Ihair Ifdnd.. Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, v. iO3O el seq.
48.=Esj5erus: this reading in C and T has been taken to be a confusion of original 'esperance' with 'Hesperus,' the (morning and) evening star. SJ and A have the 'correct' reading, and K has made the necessary emendation in his translation, with a marginal note, 'esperance, that is hope.' Cp. the Garmont of Gud Ladez's, p. 17O:

'Hir slevis suld be of esperance.'

'Esperance' is presumably intended to balance 'wanhope,' or despair in the previous line. But Professor Bruce Dickins, of Leeds University, writing on this subject to the Times LiIera~-y Suf~t/emeiz1, jith December 1924, shed a new lighi on the matter. He wrote:
- . But is this conclusive? Kinaston had consulted more than one of the pnnted versions of the poem, and when baffled by their readings had sought the advice of Scottish friends; but to my mind the form "tulliure," which he substitutes at v. 194 for the meaningless "tulsure" of Thynne and the rest,
negatives in advance the suggestion that he had access to a purer text than that presented by the Charteris print.
I suggest that the reading "Esperus"should be retained, but in an unusual sense-a sense hitherto unrecognised by the N.E.D., though there is unquestionably an example at vv. 197-8 of The Second An~nversary, where Donne is describing the flight of Mistress Elizabeth Drury's soul 'twixt earth and heaven:

"Venus retards her not, to enquire if shee
Can (being one starre) Hesper, and Vesper bee."

Venus is, of course, both Evening and Morning Siar-Hesper when she follows, Phosphor when she goes before, the sun (Cicero, De Nalura Deorum, 2, 2, 53). In this passage of Donne, however, the juxtaposition of" Hesper" and "Vesper" makes it clear that, by a strange transference of meaning, "Hesper" is used of the Morning Star.
"Esperus" is almost certainly to be found in the same sense in the second stanza of the Scots song, "Lusty May with Flora quene," which is as early as i he first half of the sixteenth century. In the Bannatyne manuscript of 1568 it begins:

"Than esperus thai is so bricht,
Till wofull hairtis castis his lycht,"

which is modernized and anglicized to
"Then Aurora that is so bright,
To wofull hearts he casts great licht,"

in the 1682 edition of Forbes's Aberdeen "Cantus."
It will be seen that the two hnes quoted present a pretty close parallel to the passage from Henryson.
In view of the references I have given I cannot see that there is any need to abandon the Charteris reading; Donne shows that "Esperus" can be used in the sense of the Morning Star, which brings light to woeful hearts, as the song from the Bannatyne manuscript suggests. And it is particularly appropriate that "Esperus,~' who is also Venus, should comfort the faithful lover.'
(See also the reply by Mr W. M. L. Hutchinson, T.L.S., 25th December 1924.)

5O.=Of ~ir be.~est: Troilus and Criseyde, v. 1423 et seq.
6r.=ane uther quair: this 'other quair,' if it ever existed, is not known to ex~t now *
74.=Lybell of rq5udie: 'a bill of divorcement': the li~5ellum r~j~udii of the Vulgate. Wycliffe translates it 'a libel, that is, a litil






boke offorsakyng.' For 'libell' in the sense of a book of any kind, cp. Lynd say, Testament and C'om~laynt of our Soverane Lordis Paj5yngo, 19-21 (S.T.S ed. Hamer~ I. 56-57):

'Quintyng, Mersar, Rowle, Henderson, hay & holland,
Thocht thay be ded, thar libells bene levand,
Quhilkis to reheirs makeith redaris to reiose.'

77.=into the Couri commozin: that is, became a prostitute. Cp. the word 'courtesan.'
78.=A er se . paragon. The phrase derives from the vocabulary of printing, and means, literally: 'A by itself' the word, 'A'; just as the character '&' is stUl called the 'ampersand,' i.e. '& by itself' = the word 'and.' 'A' being the first letter of the alphabet, the phrase came to be applied to whatever was tirst and highest in esteem. Cp. Cryin~' of Play, 133
Edinburgh, Quhilk is the lampe & A per se of this regioun and examples from Dunbar, Douglas, Stewart, Lyndsay,
etc., in Craigie's Dictionary oJ the Older Scottish Tongue.
79.=how Was thou fortunail.. how evil was thy fortune.
84.=fall: in the sense of 'obtain' or 'come in for.' See N.E.D. s.v. 'Fall,' v. 54.
87.=excuse: vindicate. Cresseid's womanhood, wisdom, and fairness are not qualities that require extenuation.
91.=wickitlangage.~ slanderous tongues-Rumor.
97.=BejIdil: (North. beldau) decorated. The 'Ilylded' of TA is a corruption, due probably to inability to understand the origina
io6. efter the Law was Iho: according to the law at that time.
1O7-8.=Calchas was not a priest of Venus and Cupid in Chaucer, but
=a priest of=(Troilies and Criseyde, i. 69.72). Henryson
=probably=his service deliberately for the sake of
dramatic effect.
129. outwaill: outcast. (For 'wale' = choose, see 44O infra The word ~s still common in Scots use.) Litera y, 'chosen for rejection.'
133. abjcct odious: 'abject' is here a substantive, = 'outcast.'
!4o. forlane: perhaps 'deflowered': cp. N.E.D. s.v. 'forlane,' where it is explained as the past participle of' forlie,' to prostitute, or violate. But the sense is more probably 'forsaken.' G. G. S. quotes Rolland's Court of Venus (S.T.S., 127, 496) for a very similar use of the word:

'Be quite for3et, ouirsene, and all forlane.'

147 et seq. With this description of the Planets compare Dunbar's Goldyn Targe (ed. Mackenzie, p. I 15), 1O9-117.
149. influence.~ in the astrological sense. 'The supposed flowing from the stars of an ethereal fluid acting upon the character and destiny of men, and affecting sublunary things generally.'
I 55. frosnit: a corruption of 'fronsit' or 'frounced' as it is given, correctly, in T. The correct form occurs in the Fables, 2819, 'hir fronsit face.' Kinaston again has the right sense- 'frownced that is wrinkeled.'
his lyre was lyke the Leid: 'his lere that is his=(K). Lead, according to medieval alchemy, was the metal of Saturn. Cp. Chaucer, Pious of Fame, iii. 358-59:

'And the leed, withouten faile,
Is lo, the metal of Saturne.'

164. gyis: dress or robe. The correct reading is certainly 'gyte' (O.F. guite, a gown or dress). Here it may be taken either as 'robe' or 'hat' (Godefroy, Dictionnaire Ilistorique de l'Ancicn Langage Frcznšois). The usual English sense is 'garment '- so used till x614. 'And she cam after in a gyte of reed' (Chaucer, CanEerbu~y Tales, A. 3954).
167. fiasche: Thynne and Speght both read 'fasshe' (O.F.fais or faisse, bundle or sheaf), but 'flash'is common in this sense in x6th and 17th century writers. The N.E.D. S.D. Flash, sb.3, is disposed to attribute these usages to the example of Henryson, and quotes Fairfax, Tasso (16OO), xi. xxviii. 2O

'Her ratling quiver at her shoulders hong,
Therein a flash of arrowes feathered weele.'






2O5.=uftricht: (unricht, 7'AK). The latter reading is probably the more correct, corresponding, as it does, with Chaucer's 'amis' in Troilus and criseyde, v. 664~5:

'The sonnes sone, Pheton, be on-Lyve
And that his fadres cart amis he dryve.'

But compare Fables, 1. 47O (p. 19):

'Ye ar your ffatheris sone and air uprichi.'

211.=The names of the four steeds derive from Ovid's Me/a,;zorfthoces, ii. 153-5

Aeous, Aethon, Phlegon, arid the fine Pyrois

The restlesse horses of the Sunne began to ney so hie.'

(GoLding's translation, 1567.)

In both char/ens and Thynne, Phiegon appears as Philologee. K and SJ give the correct readLng.
231.=lauch . . wety,: G. G. S. explains these forms as infinLtives with the value of the subjunctive. But the more natural expla~ nation is that 'lauch' is an eccentric form of 'leuch,' the preterite ; 'weip'is the normal form-cp. A.S. 'weop.'
244-5.=Izeklzi: with these two lines compare the description of IEsop, Fables, 11. 1352-3, p. 49. The meaning is fringed, like the hackle of a cock, or folded. Kinaston glosses it in a marginal note: 'hecled that is wrapped or folded.' As a poetic headdress this 'turban' sLirvived well into the eighteenth century, as in the portrait of the poet James Thomson, for example.
246-52.=Cp. Chaucer's Doctour of Physic in Prol. 41O et seq.
26O.=gysa: gyte T. See note on II. 164, 178 suftna.
261.=ane Chunle: an allusion to the fate of the Man in the Moon. Cp. Chaucer, Troilus and Criseya'e, Bk. i., 11. 1O13-4.
'Quod Pandarus, thou hast a ful gret care
Lest that the cherl may fafle out of the mone.'

Cp., too, Shakespeare, Midsummer Nz~h1's Th'eam, V. 1. 251 ; and
Temftest, IT. ii. 13T.

272.=vocatioun: calling together, convocal ion. Cp. line 346 infra.
275.=See note on 11. 1O7-8 suj5na.
29O.=Injurie: the form 'injure,' found in T, is better Scots and, metrically, makes a better line.
299.=nwdzfie: to judge or assess ; Scots legal usage, still in use. Cp. the form 'moderator' in the Scots Church Assembly.
3O8.=abhominabzll. a common, but fallacious form of the word, due to the popular and incorrect derivation, 'ab hominc': used from the time of Wyclif, and very common in Shakespeare.
3~8. In the m~dLevaL physiology, moisture and heat were component qualities of the 'sanguine' humour-cold and diyness of the melancholic.
332.=bill: (Anglo-L. billa, altered from Med. L. build, a seal) any sealed or formal document; used untiL 1788 in the sense of 'indictment.'
~=The late Sir J. Y. Simpson demonstrated by these lines that Leprosy in this country was, as on the Continent, truly the Greek ELephantiasis (Edin. Med. and Surg. frur2lal, 1841).
~43. The leper's cup, or begging-bowl, and clap-dish, to give warning of his approach. Scott discusses this passage in the notes to Sir Trisfreiiz (Poetical Works, v., pp. 452.54).
358.=the flail: the great hall of the medieval house where all the members of the household ate together.
362.=on g-rouf: (O.N. ~gnri/u), cp. modern 'grovelling.' The form still exists in Scots use. A friend of mine lately heard a young mother with a crying infant beii~g advised to 'turn the bairn agrufe.'
382, 391. Eos~itall, Sj5ittaill lious: Laing (h'en~ysofl, p. 261) writes:
'There is reason to believe that a spittall house existed in Dunfermline and the name SpLttal Street, at the east end of the town, is still retained. This may have afforded Henryson an opportunity of personally witnessing the victims of this frightful malady.' The opportunitY, in Henryson's day, was not so hard to come by ; there were leper communities all over the country. Cp. the names Spittal (near Berwick), Spittal Street, Edinburgh, and Liberton (supposed to be a corruption of Lipper-tOun).
4O7.=The Com~˘laint of Cresseid follows the model of Chaucer's Cornjt5leyflt oj~ Fain&~ Anelyda ~ji5ofl Fals Ancyte.
413.=on brdrd. See notes to Fables, 1. 1O.
416.=With this account of Cresseid's forfeited delights, G. G. S. compares Philotus (ed. Bannatyne Club), ž~ xo e~ seq. ; and Lyndsay's Squyer Meldrum (ed. Laing, i., p. 189, 11. 927 et seq.).
44O.=waillit: choice. See note on 1. 129 su~˘ra.
48O.=iein: Skeat and S~r W. A. Craigie advocate the rejection of this reading in favour of 'leve.'
483.=In the old Burrow Lawis of Scotland, cap. 64, it is enjoined, that 'Leper folke sall nocht gang fra dure to dure, but sall sit at the posts of the Burgh, and seik a~mes (w~ith cop and clapper) fra thame that passes in and forth.' (Laing: flenryson, p. 262.)
49O, ~ the Lij~per . . . us Li~fter: leper folk, as in lines S26, ~8o.
5O7.=idole: (late L. idolum, a. G. ÇC&~,)'o~, fr. e~&oc, form or shape), insubstantial mental image. N.E.D. quotes, 'Vain idols and phantoms of blessedness' (i899).
R






c/seq.)
54O.=ouircome: Professor Bruce Dickins, of Leeds University, has pointed out (Test. of Cresseid, Edinburgh, 1925, p. 38) that the usual punctuation, a comma between 'scho' and 'ouircome,' destroys the sense. 'Ouircome' here, as in Or/ilzeus and Eurydice, I. 4OO (p. 141), means 'revived.'
54!. ca/a! oc/zane! The Gaelic 'ochane' or 'O hone' (exclamation of sorrow) has puzzled T, who read 'atone.' It is possible to read 'cald' either as 'called' or 'cold'; I have chosen the latter. It is necessary to supply some such phrase as 'She cried' before the next line.
~o. the fickill quheill: the wheel of Fortune. Cp. Fa6les, II. 2418-9
(p.=82).
567 sad: reliable (literally, 'heavy'). Used ironically here for 'unsad,' as in Chaucer, Clerkes Tale (E. 995-6)

'O stormy peple! unsad, and ever untrewe!
Ay undiscreet, and chaungynge as a vane.'

583.=drowrie: (AT dowry). See note on Fables, 1. 497. Cp. Gawain, I O57.

588.=Wellis: the fountains associated with the chaste Diana.
589.=.flroc/ie and Belt. There is no mention in Chaucer of the belt, which is probably Henryson's addition. It may be intended to signify the cincture of chastity, as the brooch represented the badge of true love, worn over tIle heart. For the brooch, see Trozluc and Criseyde, v. i66i-i666, 166L), 1688-1694.
6io. Ballet the term probably applies to the whole poem, which is writtcn in Ballade-royal verse.


Orpheus and Eurydice
2. rynk (renk, C; reulre A). Probably the reading in d is a mtsreadLng of C.
25. knawlege: (tarage C; carage A). Probably thc best reading ~s 'tarage' (C), mearnng 'flavour': 'carage' is a likely misreading of 'tarage,' and 'knawlege' is an obvious case of substitution for an unfamiliar readrng.
52. ftolimzo. Polyhynmia, from the secondary form 'Polymnia.'
92.=Cp. Testament of Gresseid, II. 429 el seq., and Lyndsay's Squyer Maldrum (ed. Laing, i., p. 189, II. 927 et seq.).
121.=ramj'andas a Lyoun. Cp. notcs to Fables, 1. 999, p. 238.
134 et seq. This 'Complaint of Orpheus' ~s similar in construction to that of Cresse~d in the Tesfa'nent. Cresseid's is a nineline decasyllabic stanza, rhyming aabaabbab; that of Orpheus is a ten-linc decasyI1ab~c stanza, rhyming aabaabbcbc.
38.=lyking: for a similar use of the word, see the lyrft printed by Sir E. K. Chambers from the Sloane MS. 2593 (Early English Lyrics, 1926):
'Lullay, mine liking, my dere sone, mine sweting.'

139.=gole, and gre1!: bitter crying and lamentation. (Cp. Lyndsay, Monarchie, 6OO3)

'Thare salbe gowlyng and gretyng.'

14O.=~yflfli5 pins or pegs of a harp.
I 59. hale of hair. cp. the Testament of Cresseid, 1. 386 (p. 118) 'Than in ane Mantill and ane bawer Hat'

=-apparently one of the insignia of poverty and misery. i88. wedlingis stre~l: Walling Street; here, the Milky Way, or
=Galaxy. Cp. Chaucer, Nazis of Fame, Bk. IL, II. 427 ei seq.:

'Now' quod he tho, 'cast up thyn ~e;
See yonder, lo, the Galax~e,
The which men clepe the Milky Wey,
Foi hit is white and somme, parfey,
Callen hit Watlynge strete,'

and Douglas, Virgil, iii. vili. (ed. Small, ii., p. i5i, II. II


'Of euery sterne the twinkilling notis he, That in the stil heuin move cours ~e se, Arthuris huyfe, arid Hyades betaiknand rane, Syne Watling streil, the Home, and the Charle wane.'

G.=G. S. wntes: The ascription of the name of a great road to the Via lactea (" Hac iter est Superis ad magni tecta tonantis," Ovid, iWefam., 1. 17O) was common in Europe. The English also spoke of"Walsingharn Way" (see Blomfield's T~7orf(?lk), the Italians of Strada di Roma, and the Spaniards of the Santiago road (see Skeat, Chaucer, iii. 263, and Langland, ii. p. 8).' (Henryson, iii. p. 54.)
igo. Quhilk fadir is to all the stormis cald: cp. the Testament a! cresseid~ 11. 155-169 (pp. iIO-IIt su~ra).
2O6-7.=wait ye nochi well1 I am your awin frew knychi?' Orpheus appears here in thoroughly medieval guise, vowing service to the queen of love, like Palamon in the Knight's Tale:
'Emforth my myght, thy trewe servant be,
And holden werre alwey with chastitee
That make I myn avow, so ye me helpe'

(Can ferbu~y Tales, A. 2235-7.)






=='Off sik musik to wryt I do bot doit.'212-13.=Till mercury . . quhilk callit is.~ cp. Testament of Crejseid,
11.=239-245, and 11. 267-27O (pp. 113, 114 suj5ra).

219.=With Henryson's account of the music of the spheres, and music in general, and with his ingenuous disclaiming of all knowledge of the scIence (1. 24O infra), cp. G. Douglas, Palice of Ronour, ed. Small, i. p. 2O, II. 12 et seq., and 11. 21 et seq.
223.=maJ'~j5a;nou,jd. (A. F. ma~j5einonde, ad. Med. L. m%ba mundi), the map of the world: in early use (as here), the world itself.

'With that he racht me a roll: to redo I begane, The royetest ane ragment with mony ratt rime, Of all the mowis in this mold, sen God merkit man, The mouing of the rnapamound, and how the mono schane.'
(Douglas, Virgil, 239, a. 55.)

And Lyndsay, The Dreme (ed. Laing, p 32, 1. 833):

'Quhilkis als is nocht in al the Maparnound'

224 Quliilk movznš seics uny/j5er~ei'nalz. This line has been rejected as corrupt, and, as it stands, is certainly diff9cult. G. G. S. suspects (and not unreasonably) the repetition of 'quhilk' at the head of thiec successive lines. But the original reading of the Chepman & Myllar text is not 'Quhilk' but 'Quhill.' Accepting this reading, the sense may be taken to be-

'.=. . Which harmony of all this universe (In perpetual unison, until moving cease), Pluto called the soul of this world.'

The 'Quhilk' at the head of the last line is unnecessary but resumes the sense after the interpolation. And the point of the phrase, 'Quhill moving seiss,' is admirably illustrated in Lyndsay's Dialo~'. be/nix Ex~zterience and ane Courteour, 11. 6O38-9, in which, describing the end of creation, he Says:

'And everilk Planeit in his speir
Sall rest, withouttin mole moveyng.'

See too, II. 6241-6247, and Laing's note. Orpheus's Journey through the heavens may be compared with the flight in Lyndsay's Dreine, i., pp. 15-2O, especially II. 5O5-511.
Henryson's knowledge of the terms of music may have been derived from Boethius' De Muszca. Cp. Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale (B. 4483-4):

'Therwjth ye han in musyk moore feelynge
Than hadde Boece, or any that kan synge.'
The following well-known passage from Hig den's Polychronicon, 1495, fol. ioi (printed by Wynkyn do ~Vorde), illustrates the reputed origin, and sense, of some of these terms:
'Here wyse men I tell, that Pictagoras passed som tyme by a smythes hous, and herde a swete sowne, and accordynge in the smytynge of four hamers vpon an anuelt, and therefore he lette weye the hamers, & found that one of the hamers weyed twyes so moche as another. Another weyed other halfe so moche as another; and another weyed so moche as another, and the thyrde dde of another. As though the fyrste hamer were of syx pounde, the second of twelue, the thyrde of eyght, the fourth of ix.-When these accordes were founden, Pictagoras gaue them names, and so that he called in nombre, double, he called in sownes DYAPASON, and that he called in nombre other kalfe, he called in sowne OVAPENTE, & that that in nombre is called alle and the thyrde dde, hete in sownes DYATESSERON, and that that in nombres is called alle &' the eygkteth dele, hete in tewns, DOUBLE DYAPASON. As in melody of one strenge, yf the strenge be streyned enlonge vpon the holownesse of a tree, and departe euen atwo by a brydge sette there vnder in eyther part of the strenge, the sowne shall be Dyapason, if the strenge be streyned and touched. And yf the strenge be departed enen in thre, and the brydge sette vnder, soo that it depart bytwene the twey deles and the thyrde, then the lenger dele of the strenges, yf it be touched, shal gyue a sowne called Dyatesseron. And yf it be departed in nyne, and the brydge sette vnder bytwene the laste parte and the other dele, and the lenger dele of the strenge, yf it be touched, shall gyue a sowne that hete Tonus.'

227.=dujdare, trij5lare: double and triple time.
Emetricus:=(? Gr. ŕie~z~rpi~, 4~ ; fit measure, proportion, /AETpLKOi, of or relating to measure or measuring). This, even more than E~od&us, is 'rycht hard and curios.' The editor has discovered no use of the term denoting (as it should here do) a particular musical ratio. It is at least possible that the original form was e/Jitritus (Gr. ~ir!rpiror) or sesquitertius = one and a third, or the ratio of four to three. Admitting the common confusion of manusci ipt 't' and 'c,' we have ~ftitricu~, which a puzzled and well-intentioned copyist might normalise to emetricus. But, like my author, 1 submit the theory only until some better-informed student explains the reading as it stands






228.=Enalius; I3oethius, De Musica (Oftcnz Omnza Basle, 1546), p. 1171, 'J)ivisio chrornatis heiniolij ; Ducange (Glossarium, &c.) gives 'hemiolus = Numerus sesqu~a1ter' ; and Groves (1)ict. of Music, ii. 6O8) gives: Hemiolia (Gr. ~pe~X~o~ Lat. sesquialtera; Fr. hÚmiole; Ital. emialia). 'Literally, the whole and a half; technically, the proportion of two to three. In this latter sense the word is used, in the musical terminology of the Middle Ages, to denote the perfect fifth, the sound of which is produced on the monochord by two-thirds of the open stung.'
229.=~j5oddeus (Epogdˇ÷s, -÷us, ~ir6-y~oo~): a whole and an eighth-.the proportion of nine to eight (or sesquloctavus) ; Boethius, p. 1O62 (Diagram), gives 'Epogdous.'
235.=cwflj5onyt wi/h the dyss: or 'componyt with the "bis"'- 'bisdiapente,' the interval of a double fifth.
264.=Electa, mygra, and /hesafthane: the Eumenides, or Furies:
Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone.
266.=exiana: Ixion, king of the Lapith~e, who, for his ingratitude in attempting the love of Hera, was made father of a Centaur, and chained for ever to a rolling wheel. (Ovid, Me/arnorj5hoses, Bk. iv.)
282.=anc naftie: probably 'an apple'; though Jamieson records the form 'napple'-'a sweet wild root' . . . apparently Orabus tube rosuc, or Heath-pea ( . . . diligently digged for and greedily chewed by boys). But the form is more probably a product of the opposite process to that by which 'una narßnja' becomes 'an orange.'
295.=tilius: (Theseus C, 1. 178). Tityus, son of G~ea, who for his attempted violence to Arternis, was destroyed by Zeus with a flash of lightning ; after which he was cast into Tartarus, where vultures and snakes devoured his liver as he lay outstietched on the ground. Cp. Chaucet's Bocce, iii., Metrum 12 'The foul that highte voltor, that etith the stomak or the gyser of Tycius, ~s so fulfild of his song that ~t nil eten ne tiren no more.' The order of incidents in Orpheus' search follows closely the account of Boethius, but Henryson most probably knew the story in the Georgics, the Aeneid, Bk. vi., and in Ovid (Metamorj5hoses, Bk. iv.). Cp., too, Chaucer's lroilus and Criseyde, I. 786-7
'As sharp as doth he, Ticius, in helle,
Whos stomak foules t~ren evere mo.'

317 if. With this passage compare the lines in Lyndsay's Dialog be! uix ExJ'e;ience and ana Cour/eour~ 5729-so (ed. Laing, iii. pp. I48~9).
338 et=seš~. Tijair saw lie mony ~ai~5 and cardynall: cp. Dante, inferno, Canto xix.
369.=Z~otdorica. Hypodorian or Locrian, a plagal mode in medieval music, a fourth below the authentic Dorian mode.
37O.=gemilling: (gemynyng C) perhaps 'second part.' The form suggests some connection with gernel, 'twin, or double.' The form is used in a technical musical sense by Doug~a~, Pa/ice of Honour (ed. Small, i. 2O, 11. 19-21)

'In modu!ation hard I play and sing.
Faburdoun, pricksang, discant, countering, Cant organe, figuration, and gemmell.'

=N.E.D., s.v. 'Gimmal,' quotes Palsgrave, ' Gymell song,jumeau. yfiarlerica. Hyj5oIocrian, a rejected plagal mode, a fourth below
=the authentic Locrian. See above, note to 1. 369.
4OO.=ourcame: recovered. Cp. the use in Testament af Cresseid, I. ~4O (p. 124 suftra), and note.
4O1.=Qu.1Ŕal art thow, luve, how sail I the defyne Y: an attempt at the extravagant rhetorical 'character of love,' full of apparent paradox and contradiction. Cp. the song of Troilus in Troilus and Criseyde, Bk. 1., Il. 4OO et seq.:
'11 no love is, O God, what fele I so?'

=for a simi'ar attempt. Chaucer writes:

O=quike deth! O swete harm so queynte I'
'For hete of cold, fox cold of hete, I dye!

etc. This rather frigid and elaborate rhetoric was most
highly cultivated in the Petrarcan sonnet-form.

4O9.=For the second pait of this proverb, Sir W. A. Craigie has provided an Icelandic parallel: 'Tungan leikr vi~S tanna sßr,'
-' the tongue plays with the sore tooth.'
411.=er~art: (L. e~j5er/us) experienced (in the matter). Cp. Testament of Cresseid, 1. 35 (p. io6 supra).
414.=wedo: the obsolete masculine use, from O.E. widewa, corresponding to feminine widewe.
41g. boece: Boethius, De Consolatiofle, iii., Metrum 12.
421.=rnais(er trivat: (trowit C: trewit A) Nicholas Trivet (? 1258-1328) Dominican friar, author of a Chronicle (Annales sex Regum Anglia~ . . . . of Constance (Man of Lawe's Tale) ; and several theological worl~s, including In  Bae iii de cansalatiane j~,hi1as~j5hia' The commentary was as widely known and read as the original, and La~ng (Hen?y3on, p. 256) quotes from the inventory of the






1 Text taken horn the transcript of MS. Mm. 2. z8 in the CambridgeUniversity Library, printed in the S.T.S. edition, pp. liii.-lv.library of the Cathedral Church of Glasgow, drawn up in the year 1442, . . . 'Item, liber Boetii cum glossa Trevet.' How closely Henryson follows Trivet in the Mora~itas may be seen by comparison with the following extracts I:
'Per orpheum intel/zgitur pars intellectiua instructa sapienhia et eloquencia. vnde dicitur filius phebi et calliope. . . . et eius fihius dici/ur quilihet eloquencia instructus et quia phebus est deus sapien/ie . . . Cuius uxor est eui ice scilicet pars hominis affectiua quam sibi copulare cupi~. aristeus qui interpretatur uirtus. set illa dum fugit per prata id est arnena presentis uite calcat serpentem non ipsum conte7endo set seipsam que sufterior est inferiori scilicet sensualitati applicando a qua mordetur dum per sensuali/atem ei occasione mortis datur (?) sicque ad inferos descendit id est terrenorurn curis se subiciendo orpheus autem id es/ inte//ectus uolens earn a talibus abstrahere modulacionibus placat superos. id est per suauern eloquenciam con iunctain sapiencie rationatur commendando celestia. ut ab istis terrenis ipram abstrahat set quia ascensus ad celestia difficultatem habet propter szibtracczonem multarum delectacionurn que ~mpediunt uirtutem per quam sit ascensus.
Deinde cuni dicit. s14?~et ostendit quornodo orpheus placuerit monstra infernalia primo incipiens a cane qw fingitur Janitor mferni et habere tria capita. per istum canem intell~gctur terra.
-=. . Secundurn'ys~dorurn libro xj. ethimologiarum c. de portentis. per hunc canem trium capiturn signantul tres partes etatis per quas mors hominein deuorat. id est per infanciam iuuentutei'a et senectutern quarum quelibet admiratur sapienciam. Dcinde describit aliud monstrurn vbi notandum quod omne scelus uel est in cogitacione uel in sermone uel in opere prop/er quodponuntur tres dee sceleris que prop/er connexionern istorum adinuiccrn diiuntur sorores. quarum prima uocatur allecto. secunda thesiphone. te,cia megera. . . . Tertium monstruin quod describit est pena yrionis yxionis de quo fingitur quod uoluit concu,nbere cum Junone. vnde accepit cognomen audacis quia uoluit i/a alte amorern querere. cui Juno apposuit nubern in qua recepto semine nati sunt centauri. ipse au/em adiudicatus inferno continue uoluitur in rota.
set Juno interponit nubem quta per hanc uitam incurrit homo obscuritatem racionis vnde nascuntur centauri qui in parte sunt homines et in parte equl. quia in parte sunt racionales et in parte irracionales qui apud inferos in rota uoluitur quia deditus curis teinporalibus continue eleuatur prosperitate et depr*n
itur aduersitate que quidem rotacio desistit quando homo sapiencia instructus talia contempnit. . . . Quartum monstrum quod tangit est pena tantali qui flngitur lacerasse uiliurn suum et dedisse eum diis ad cornedenduifl pro quo dampnatus in inferno. dicitur hizbere aquam usque ad menturn et poma ante Os suum pendencia et curn fame et srti deficere. quia tamen pomurn uel aquam carpere subterfugiunt tantalus auarum signat qul filium strum lacerat dando eum dris ad cornedendum quia quicquid natura causarum habet lace at et ecponit vnde diuicias acquirat quibus tameis cum habundauerit in egestate est. quia non sustinet in necessstatibus suis ea expendere quia delectatus vsu pecunie non ult' aceruum diminuere vnde dicit et tantalus pert/i/us Zonga si/i. scilicet auaricie. spernit flumina et druicias que more fluminis labuntur. Quintum monstiilm est pena ticii qui fingitur uolursse concumbere cum latona ma/re apollinis qui est dens di~iinacionis. latona dici/ur quasi latitonai Id est certitudo futuri temporls que in dubio iacet. Quequideni Incertitudo quiaest causamernorandi artem diuinacionis die/tier mater apollinis. set sagitlis apollinis occiditur quia diuersis speciebus rntentus nimio studio quasi mortuus absorbetur.
=Deinde curn dicit tandem os/endit quornodo uxor orpheo reddita fuerit et circa hoi duo facit pr/mo oi-/endzt quomodo reddita. secundo quornodo fuerit perdita. . - . Deinde cum dicit. vos hec fabula. applicando fabulam hanc ad propositionem hortatur uitare illud quod contemplaCioflem summi boni impedit. vnde comrnuniter hornines alloquendo dicit, hec ea fabuia re.s~ici/ nos. quia scilicet ad ues/ram informacionem est inducta quicunque queritis. id est uu/tis ducere men/em. id est contemplacionem mentis in si~fternum diem. Id est bona sz~~erna. Nam qui uictus. scilicet cupidi/ate terrenorum. f/exer// lurnina scilicet rationem et intellectum a ce/esti bono in sftecus tar/areuin id es! ad terrena fauendo cupiditati ut supra expositum est quicquid ~reci~5uum /rahit. id est qurcquid boni laborando aquisiurt per sapienciam et eloquenCiam j5erdit dum uidit inferos idest duos est mtentus istis terrenis et ternporalibur que sunt infima. et hic terininatur liber tercius continens prosas 12 et metra 12.'
428.=the pa/r/c intelletyfe: medieval philosophy, foltowing Aristotle, divided the soul into severa' parts or kinds, the nutritive, sensitive, Intellectual, etc.
52O.=os/la/re: innkeeper. Hosjdciarius, Prompt. Parv.

'So wunnit thair ane wundir gay ostleir
Without the toun, until ane fair maneir.'
(Dunba r, (?) The Freiris of BerwiA', 5'.)






563.=supplied from C, 1. 436; the B reading is 'spyne.'
571 et seq. The sense of this rathet difficult passage is:
'Each man that hears this conclusion should fear to attempt to find out, by study of the constellations, what things are likely to happen under heaven ; which (things) are indifferent to 'yea' or 'nay,' being without certain and predetermined cause, and which none on earth but God alone may know.'
584. sftaying: cp. 1. 563 suftra=and note thereon.
592.=This line appears to be corrupt. Sir W. A. Craigie suggests the emendation:
'The quhilk mone cum and to j~air end indure.'

634.=The ascription to 'ffi~ R. H.,' which occurs only in B, is supported by the gloss in Gavin Douglas's hand to the word' Muse' in the Cambridge MS. (Gale O3.12) of his úneid. See Introduction, p. xiii.
Robene and Makyne
=This pastoral ballad of Henryson's is considerably indebted, in form and spirit, to the old French and Provenšal ~tastourelles; but no really convincing resemblance has yet been detected. In Modern Languaše iVotes, Nov. '931 (vol. 46), p. 457, Mr W. Powell Jones, of Western Reserve University, attempts to demonstrate that Henryson's original is to be found in a 5astourelle by one Baudes de Ia Kakerie (contained in a manuscript of the thirteenth century), and quotes extracts from the poem. It is certainly more like Robene in type than is the usual 15astourdlle, but the resemblance is still not convincing. In the old French poem 'the poet . . . sees a shepherdess appioach a swain and beg him vociferously to love her. Robin resists her until he is attracted by another girl to whom he flees. This girl will have nothing to do with him, so he goes back to the one who had offered him her love, but now she mocks him.' It will be seen that, although there is a broad similarity between the action of the two poems, they are quite unlike in detail ; and this dissimilarity is accentuated by the quotations which Mr Powell Jones gives. Corresponding to the passage in Henryson,


is this in the French poem:
'mirry makyne said him till,' etc.


"mignot Robin, tes ex mar esgardai, se cist maus ne m'assoage, je morrai." cele a dit "ol que ferai? d'amer morrai, ja nen vivrai
se toi nen ai que j'aim si bien."
~.=lowd and still: openly and in secret ; i.e. continually.
12.=raik oii raw: a common alliteiative tag in M. Scots verse. The late l'rofessor Gregory Smith gives a number of examples in his note on the passage. (flenryson, In. 59-6O.)
I 7-24.=This advice, given to Robin by M akyne, is an excellent summary of the rules laid down for lovers in the 'Statutes of Love.' For a full analysis of this subject, see W. A. Neilson's Origins and Sources of the Court of Love, 1899.
19.=Jieynd: not 'kind,' as some editors have wished to read it, but 'courteous' or 'gentle.'
2O.=Wyse, .'zardy, andfre: wise, courageous, and generous.
21.=denger: no previous editor has noted the meaning of 'denger' in this line. G. G. S. glosses it as 'danger, or harm.' The original sense was 'dominion or power'
as in Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Prol., A. 663:
'In daunger hadde he at his owene gise
The yonge girles of the diocise,'

and later, 'difficulty,' 'chariness,' 'coyness,' or 'disdain. For
the latter uses, cp. the Romaunt of Me Aose, 1. 3371 'My silf I knowe full well Daungere,
And how he is feers of his cheere
At prime temps love to manace,'

and 11. 1491-2:

'The proude-hertid Narcisus,
That wes in love so daungerous.'

See, too, the works of Gower (ed. Macaulay), ii. 476.
24.=be patient and 'revie: the most binding injunction of all. Cp. the poem ascribed to Dunbar (S.T.S. ii. 312-3), 'Gif ye wald lufe and luvit be,' in which each stanza ends with the refrain:
'Be secreit, trew, and pacient.'

39.=1 dern: in derne, or in secret.
56.=The MS. reading is doubtful here, but seems to be either 'lue' ot 'lid.' Sir W. A. Craigie suggests that 'lid must he a slip on the part of Bannatyne, for which either luve or list would be a natural emendation, but still better is bid = ask for, as in the Fables, 157, 'na bettet lyfe we bid.'
~8. sick!: see AT.E.D. s.v. 'sight, v.2'
96.=fir/k, forrest, or fawid: a common alliterative sequence, like 'roif and rest' in 1. 49, and 'hoittis hair' in 1. 122, etc. ' Firth' is a coppice or wooded ground.
iiˇ. but let!: without hindrance. The same use as in Fables, 1. 1198 (C) '. . . Thocht I mycht not it lat.' (See note on this line.)






Sum Practysis of Medecyne

z.=Guk, guk: the exact use of this expression here is rather doubtful. 'Guk'is presumably 'gowk,~ and 'guk-guk,' as G. G. S. notes, is Scots for 'cuckoo'; but the intended application here is not clear. G. G. S. quotes from Montgomerie, Cherrie and Ihe Slae, 7O1 'Go, go, we do not heir bot guckis,' that is, Z..Tugarnur duntaxil (in Dempster's Iranslation).
8.=1 standfard: cp. Fables, 11. 676 and 2867 su~ra.
17.=Zsc˝rew 1/lame Ihatleid: cp. Fables, 1222 su˘ra.
2O.=116: either 'cut l in the sense of simple surgery, or in the commoner and more restricted sense of 'castrate.' There may, on the other hand, be a connection with O.E. lyb, a medicine, drug or simple, as G. G. S. suggests, but there is no other instance of the verbal use either in Old or Middle English, or in Scots.
22.=sedull: (Fr. cedule) cp. Lyndsay, 'Cedule,' a schedule or writing (ed. Laing, . 7O, 234). Cp. A:še and Yowth, 1. 69.
24.='That glean all ages'? Other suggestions for this line are glean, from gleam, 'to smear,' and egeis = 'eggs,' in supposed allusion to the medieval practice of compounding drugs with eggs. But the candid editor is well-advised 1O admit that there are many words and passages in this poem that defy any exact interpretation.
26.=dia: 'compounded of': the familiar pharmaceutical prefix, used here, as occasionally elsewhere, as a separate word. Cp. Langland, Passus B, xx. 173

'And to dryue away Deth with dyas and drogges.'

Cp., too, the combinations dialesseron, d/afteiite, etc. Cp. Orftheus and Eurydice, 11. 233 ci seq.
dregj,-is: probably 'drugs.' Cp. the Langland quotation above- the form exhibiting the common confusion with dreg (dredge), a preparation (F. dragÚe).
27.=Dia: in the four 'prescnptions' means 'compounded of.' Dia Culcakit--prescription for the colic, etc.
Cajie:=take. Cp. 'Recipe' in 1. 4o infra. cuk,naid: obscure; may be 'excrement.'
~olleraige: Arsesmart, the water-pepper plant.
31.=lufage: lovage (Lsvisiicurn o~cinale), popular medicinal herb, used mainly as a diuretic.
36.=sollin: perhaps 'sprinkle' or 'mix in.' G. G. S. suggests a connection with soudie, 'hotch-potch.'
4O.=reid mike: 'red rook.' 'But why,' asks G. G. S., 'red rook, except for alliterative purposes, or in burlesque verse?' The particular form of humour favoured by the author of this grotesque piece is the prescription of impossible and nonexistent ingredients. 'gaw of ane grene dow' (I. 43)-the dove having no gall in medieval physiology (see N.E.D. s.v. 'gal],2' esp. examples from Orm and Lydgate); and hence the 'fyve unce of ane fle wing.'
42.=The drain of ane drekterss: drek is drake; for Ierss, see N.E.D. s.v. 'Tarse i~ dram is used in the sense of a liquid measure.
4~.=slak: Thomas Ruddiman, in his edition of G. Douglas (171O), glosses 'Slike': 'Scot. Bor. call a kind of Sea-weed, very soft and slzppery, SLAKE, which they also eat.'
52.=deir and denteit in daill: 'deir and denteth (dainty)'is a common alliterative tag. The Dia Glaconicon, like the curate's egg, is good in parts.
58.=sc/Ic bak: the she bat.
6i.=fra Zawdian to lundin: from Lothian to Lundin (in Eifesh'ire)- i.e. from south to north. See Introduction, p. xiv.
7O.=g~Ise: Jamieson gives 'guse: the long gut or rectum,' without any illustration or justification.
77.=yule sfok: 'winter cabbage, or kale ; probably so-called because of the use made of them in Yule and Hallowe'en celebrations. Cp. Burns, Halloween, 11. 28-36.
84.=I~j5ary: I wager. (L. ~j5ariare; Fr. jiarier.)
86.=out of the fary: out of this world. Cp. Dunbar:

'Bot evir be reddy and addrest
To pass out of this frawdful fary.'

9O, 91.=It is ane mirk mirrour. A coarse application of the proverb, 'A mirk mirroor is a man's mind' (Fergusson: Proverbs,
A.=7O).


Ane Prayer for the Pest

=Visitations of the plague were so frequent in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century that it is fruitless to speculate on the particular outbreak to whtch the poem refers.

27.=~berrei~t: the Bann. draft has ~breis/, a form which probably represents no difference in the sense.
37.=servis: common aphetic form of 'deserves.'
53.=bot dreid: without fail. Ba' has 'be deid'(by death).
64.=The Finis which occurs here in the Bd text serves only to separale the first part of the poem from the elaborate






Supplication which follows. With the intricate internal rhyme~system of these stanzas compare Dunbar's Ballal of our Lady, and the conclusion of some of the sections of the Flyting of Dunt5ar and Kennedie (ed. Mackay Mackenzie, pp. i6o and 12, 2O, etc.). This device of ending a poem with a sort of firework-display of metre and rhyme is a common one in Scots poetry. The actual woids'used in the first stanza of Hcnryson's finale inevitably suggest Dunbar's Ballat, and if the Henryson attribution is to be credited, it is at least possible that Dunbar was here indebted to the older poet. But as it was certainly a common tradition, it is more than likely that the Eterne, Sujberne tag was also a poetical commonplace of which only these examples survive.
66.=serve: used here in the sense of 'grant.'
71.=wit/i space: with time (or opportunity). C. G. S. quotes Dunbar, Man, sen My lyfe is ay in Weir (Mackay Mackenzie, p. 147):

'Thyne awin gud spend quh~ll thow hes spais.'

74.=distort: in the literal sense-' turn aside.'
84.=deluge=disluge, i.e. dislodge, or remove.
86.=rn/spent forl/zochi: the two tern-is are practically synonymous:
'misspent and wasted.'


The Garmont of Gud Ladeis
=Henryson here elaborates an idea often suggested in earlier verse, the robing of his lady in the graces and virtues. He perhaps took the idea from a long, tedious poem by Oliver de Ia Marche, the TriurnjblIe des Dames (alias, Le Parement des Dames), c. 15OO ; but, as G. G. S. points out, it was an easy and natural extension of the old chivalric 'significations' such as we have in the contemporary Scots MS. of Gilbert of the }iaye, It was carried a degree farther by Jean de la Motte, in his Vole d'Enfer et dt Paradis, who speaks of a 'cotte de vilonie, rnanteau de maudisson et descri,' &c. If Henryson owes anything to de Ia Marche it is the idea and only the idea, and his merit is the greater for having recast a prolix 14OO-line allegory into this brief and graceful form. The idea was resumed in 1572 by the unknown author of the Lamentation of Lady Scoti'r~nd, etc. Scotland says:
My bodie was weill cled with Polkie;
My hat was of Justice and Equitie
My coller, of trew Nichtbour lufe it was,
Weill prenit on with Kyndnes and solas;
My Gluifis wer of fre Liberalitie:
My Sleifis wer of to borrow and len glaidlie
My Lais and Mail3ies of trew permanence;
My stomak maid was of clene Conscience
My waist was gyrdit with Sobrietie;
My leggs and feit schod with Simplicitie .

(Cranstoun Satirical Poei,zs of the Tijize of the Reformatum,
S.T.S. 1891, ii. 226-228.)


8.=deir: not 'harm,' as G. G. S. gives it, but 'frighten,' as in Robene and Makyne, p. 151, 1. 2!.
i~.=mailyeis: eyelet-holes.
27.=~ateleI: ruff. Cp. Dunbar: A General Salyre, ed. Mackenzie, p. 153,1.64:

'Sic skaith and scorn; so mony paitlattes worne.'

29.=e~~erance. hope. See Testame,zI of Cresseid, 1. 48, and note.
38.=my sezil. either 'my seal' or 'my happiness' (sele).


The Bludy Serk

i.=hindir: not 'liundir' as in previous texts. G. G. S. gives the sense as 'a long time ago,' which connects up, in sense, with 'Thair was a worthy king.' The phrase 'This hindir ye~r' connects directly with 'I hard be tald.' It is only a variant on one of the commonest of opening phrases in Middle Scots poetry-cp. Dunbar's 'This hinder nycht, half sleiping as 1 lay' ; 'This hindu nyclit in Dunfermeling' ; 'In secreit place this hyndir nycht' ; 'Musing allone this hinder nicht,' etc. : and in early English lyrics, 'This endris night.
(E.=K. Chambers~ Early English Lyrics, 1926, pp. 119, 121.)
12.=bol and: 'and also.'
i~.=luvit hirjbaramour: cp. Barbour, Brus, xiii. 485:

'That he his sistir pararnouris
Lufit.'

1g- afowllgyane of ane: a paiticularly foul giant. See Table of Grammatical Characteristics, in/rod., p. xxxviii.
24.=wal/ze: not 'wane' (dwelling) as in G. G. S.
~7. the br/c/it: for this substantival use of adjectives in M. Scots, see Table of Grammatical Characteristics, In/rod., p. xxxvii.
~8. deir: the fact that 'deir' is not a perfect rhyme does not justify the substitution of 'fre' or any other word here. 'Merk' and 'quert'in 11. 8~ and 87 depend equally on assonance.






96.=mak: perhaps a false formation (for the sake of rhyme) of the past participle ('with prayers to him made '). Cp. the duplication of 'mak' as a rhyme word in this stanza (II. 92, 96) with 'nycht'(Il. 33, 39); but see note on I. ~8 sz~ftra.
,18.=hend: cp. Robene and Makyne, 1. 19, 'heynd.' Here 'hend men' is the equivalent of 'gentle readers.'


The Ressoning betuix Aige and Yowth

11.=lyart lokis koir: there is little distinction in meaning possible between 'lyart' and 'hoir' ; 'lyart' is used perfunctorily here, as often, for the sake of alliteration.
18.=makdorne (misdum iW): 'makdome'='comeliness' is common in
M.=Scots writers; e.g. in Dunbar, Tua Mairit Weiizen and the Wedo, 1. 73 (ed. Mackay Mackenzie, p. 86):

'To manifest my rnakdome to multitude of pepill.'

It is used, too, in the sense of 'appearance,' as in Pitscottie's Chronicles: '. . . one called Alexander I~1 'Cullo, and the other THE SQUY1~R OF CLEISCH, who wer both verne lyk in makdoine to the King,' etc. If the reading misdurn from M be accepted, it must be read in the sense of 'misdoom' or 'misjudgement.' (See W.E.D., s.v. 'Misdoom.')
21.=growme on ground: like 'freik on fold,' 1. 28 infra, a common alliterative tag both in M. Scots and M. English verse.
22.=j5air: aphetic form of ern~tair, aAtair impair, detract from. G. G. S. quotes Catholic Tractates (S.T.S.), p. io, 1. 27: 'nother elk and nor pearand ane word.'
28.=forss: for this adjectival use (=Jorcy), see Dunbar, Doun by ane Rever (S.T.S. ii. 3O6, 1. 35):


'Sum wyse, sum wicht, sum forss, sum fell.'

forly in MF is almost certainly a scribal error for 'forcy,' 'c' and 't' being here, as often, confused.
31.=laikly: piobably merely a colruplion of laythly(MME).
35.=cranzj5: the sense ceitainly seems to be 'strut,' 'swagger'-but no very conclusive account of the form has yet been given. See G. G. S.'s note (S.T.S. iii., p. 66). Note the antithesis between 'cramping' and 'cruking, cowering' at 1. 42.
39.=birdis: ladies. See N.E.D. s.vv. 'Bird,' 'Burd,' 'Bride': and cp. the ballad-titles, Burd Ellen and Young 7'amlene, Burd isabel and Earl Patrick.
52.=My wittis/yve: the five senses.
59.=ii: (Johne ME). The MF reading probably needs no emendation. 'Johne' is used as it is used in Johne Uponland (Piers Plowman), etc., for 'any man.' Sir W. A. Craigie suggests a misreading of' thow' (tow).
6~.=gowand: (galzart ME). The form 'gowand' has baffled all Henryson's editors. See G. G. S.'s jocose note on the subject (S.T.S. iii. 67): 'galzart'is, of course, galliard, a gay or spirited fellow.
69.=sedullis: see Sum Practysis of Medecyne, L 22, and note.
7O.=triun~fthit. The MF reading 'tievist' (traversed, ran contrary) is certainly the most satisfactory here 'tremefit' (Bd) is perhaps a corruption of the same reading.


The Prais of Aige

i.=Wythin a garth: cp. Dunbar's Of Denting (ed. Mackay Mackenzie, p. 23), 1. 3:
'Within ane garth under a tre.'

3 et. This abbreviation for 'and' and its possible significance are discussed in Appendix3 p. 221.
~.=There are obviously two senses to be taken from th~s line, according to which punctuation is preferred; but the question does not greatly affect our understanding of the poem.
13.=fiemyt: put to flight; 'fremmit' (Bd) may be a coiruption of the same word, or have its usual sense of 'exiled,' 'estranged.'
19.2O.=Cp. the ieadings in Bdand Al.


The Want of Wyse Men
=The refrain of this poem seems to have been a proverbial expression, and is preserved in the Wisdom of Solomon (E.E.T.S., 43, p. 23, 765-6) ; in E'ergusson's Proverbs (164!) A. 273 ; Hislop, Proverbs of Scotland (1862), p. 63; Henderson (1881), p. 22 ; and Cheviot (1896), p. io8. Bannatyne has rehandled the poem, apparenily with a view to casting it into six-foot lines.

2.=declerde: cp. dude, II. 2867, 676, sujfra, etc.
7.=is sover now (B): 'is secure now.'
17.=uzoralitee: moral philosophy.
i8.=Austyn: Augustine.
19.=ftlacebo: In the Latin rite: Vespers for the Dead, the first antiphon of which is Placebo Domino, etc. Psalms, cxiv. 9, Vulgate. Used commonly, and perhaps here, of time-servers and flatterers. Cp. Caxton, Reynard the Fox (ed. Aiber, 1878, p. ii).
dirige: (dergie, dregy, etc.) modern, dirge. See note on Fables,
1.=449, p. i8 suftra.
S






==See Dr Mackenzie's note, u.s., p. 2O2.==      ruje ~zas rest: this collocation of 'rufe' and 'rest' is
==perhaps, as G. G. S. states, a persistence of the alliterative
==tag 'roif and rest' (cp. Robene and Makyne, 1. 49, p. 152) even
==though the sense is different.
=27.˝is: may be 'is' ~viIh initial 'h' (cp. the Cock and the Jewel,
==Bann. 1. ~, 'heir' for 'eir') or a typographical error for
=='hes' = 'has.'
=3O.fer lesse.- the B reading, 'ferles'== marvels, is the better
==reading here.
=39.ver: a typographical error for wer = 'waur,' 'worse.'
=47.a fasse: something of no value. Cp. G. Douglas, Aeneit4 iv.,
==Prol. (ed. Small, i~. 169, 22):
==    'Sayis nocht 3our sentence thus, scant worth a fas.'

ˇo. 1addzs.~ serving-men. With this contrast of 'lairds' and 'lads'
==compare Lyndsay's Testament.=of our Souerane Lord/s
Pa~yngo, 391 (ed. Laing, I. p. 75):
'Pandaris, pykthankis, custro~is, and clatteraris
Loupis up, from laddis, syne lychtis among lardis,'
and the proverb. 'Lay up like a laird, and seek like a lad' (Kelly, Sc. Prov., 24O).


The Abbay Walk
See the note on this poem, Introduction, p. xxviii.

23.=he and lie: the one and the other. Cp. Douglas, úneid (ed. Small, ~ 16O):
'And gan begyn desyre, ba~h he and he,
In bode~s 3it for to returne agane.'
23, ~y skill. with reason, on good grqunds.
5O.=wilrull: wtlling. See iTIF reading.
54.=taislli' (gustlt 11(F): these two words are the same in sense. Cp. the Fables, 1. 287, p. 13 suftra.


The Annunciation
4.=in lufe that le/is: 'letis' is an unusual form. G. G. S. suggests that let is connected with O.E. lau~an, in the sense of 'think,' or 'consider': but even so the reading is not very Convincing.
~o. Resi' and Rufe: cp. Robene and Makyne, 1. ~ and Fraic of Azše, 1. 26, and notes.
12.=decreg,s.' almost certainly ought to be decreli' is. Cp. 11. 2 and 24 of the poem when suet is and cround is appear as sue/is and croundis, If a'ecregjs be taken as a noun, the sense must be 'resolves.'
13.=me,'z'ale iS here a verb.
that myld: for this substantival use, see note to the Bludy Serk,
1.=57. Cp. 1. 21 infra, 'that gay.'
15.=Inflla': undefiled.
28.=aftj~Iidis: hearkens, or consents. See jV.E.D. s.v. Apply3. The form 'applidis' is unusual, but many words are distorted through the exigencies of rhyme in this poem.
33.=sidis: womb. Cp. Dunbar) Ros iWary: Ane Ballal of our Lady,
1.=41 (ed. Mackay Mackenzie, p. 176):
'Thy blessit sydis bure the campioun.'
51.=dreid: the MS. reads dreid = danger or harm, not deid = death, as in earlier editions.
57.=bacis: the meaning ~s doubtful. Perhaps it is used for 'establishes' as in the Mirrourfor Magictrates, xl., 'By bloudshed they doe . . . bace . their state.'
68.=lcrmzgant: the false god of the Mahometans. (ItaI. Trivzgante, O.F. Tervagan.) In the English miracle plays he represented a blustering bully, which sense is intended by Dunbar in the Dance of Me Sevin Deidly Synnis (ed. Ma ckay Mackenzie,
p.=123), 1. 115:

'Thae tarmegantis, with tag and tatter.'

Cp., too, hamlet, ni. i~. iˇ. The word is not found in its modern sense of a shrewish woman till about iG˘o.

The Thre Deid PoUis
1O.=With the sentiment of this line, compare Fables, 1. 22O8, p. 76 sz~~ra. iS. quhyz' &' reid. See note on Fables, 1. 1328, p. 48 suj5ra;
'quhyte quhilk is takin to be ~e symboll and tokin gevin commounlie in diuise of colouris to signifie sempilnes and loyaltie, and reid signifying manli~nesj and heroyicall courage' (Buchanan, The Cha,na'leon (S.T.S., pp. 42-43).
22.=cram/5u2d: curly. See note on Aige and Yaw/h, 1. ~
41.=This stanza ~nevtably reminds the reader of a more effective handhng of the material, in hamlet, v. ~,
6~.=~a/ri~ Johnistoun: MF gives the poem to 'Mr Robert Henrysoun.' Patrick Johnston is named as dead by Dunbar in the Lament for Ihe Z~fakaris, 1. 71 (ed. Mackay Mackenzie,
p.=22):
'He hes Blind Uary and Sandy TrailI Slatne with h~s schour of mortall haul, Quhilk Patrik Johnestoun myght nocht lie;
Timor mar/is con z'urbaz' me.'






=The Ressoning betuix Deth and Man
13. freik on fold: common alliterative tag. Cp. grawnze on ground, 'Aige and Yowth,' 1. 21, p. 179 su~tra, and note.
43.=under thy Caz~: either to be covered by Death's mantle, or to be lapped in lead. Caz~ of leid is a Scots phrase for a coffin (Bellenden, Cron. B. xvi. c. 19: 'Kyng Hary . . miserabilly deceassit, and ~~es brocht in ane caip of leid in Ingland,~ and Knox, , i. 179, etc.).

=It may interest the reader to see a seventeenth century specimen of this kind of graveyard dialogue. It is taken from a poetical MS. ('Blooms & Blossoms~' 1623) in the University Library of Edinburgh:

=TIlE DIALOGUE BETWIXT DEATH & A YONGUE MAN SICKE

deaTh: 5r I arrest y░ in the high kings name
man: arrest me Rascall knowest thou who I am death: o passing well Sr Anthropos of claye
Nay swagger not y░ must y░ shall obeye
man: I must I shall (proud sergeant) at whose suite
d.~ at natures 5r- m: what action? d: tes for fruite m: fetcht by whom? or for me?
d: by Adam sir, long since at Edens tree
in.=what have I with Adams debts to doe?
d.=5r as yo are heire you're liable there to.
m: hes heii-e of what? d: of that he left his kin rn: what heretage? d: the inheritance of sin.


Aganla Haisty Credence of Titlaris

=The poem was first titled by Lord Halle3, and late editors have adopted the title.

23.=Ryme . . ressoun: see N.E.D. s.v. 'Rime' and Cranstoun's edition of Mon/gornerie (S.T.S., p. 352). This is one of the earliest examples of the phrase.
46.=heird: 'hear it.' Cp. notes on 11. 676, 2867, etc.